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    Numerical analysis and study on the representativeness of sampling at uniformly mixed place of new and old ISO 2889 standards
    SHEN Fu, ZHANG Zhen, HOU Jie, JIANG Jing, LIU Xinhua
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2022, 42 (6): 585-592.  
    Abstract409)      PDF(pc) (5136KB)(108)       Save
    In order for the design of nuclear power emission facilities, the mixing uniformity which met the requirements of ISO 2889—1975 and “2∶8” principle was studied in this paper, by the method of modeling calculation in accordance with ISO 2889—2010 standards. The results show that only the basic flow characteristics as flow angel and velocity meet the requirements, but the mixing uniformity of emission representative radioiodine nuclide assessment in radioactive gas and aerosol could not meet the requirements. In order to ensure the reliability of the study, the results are verified by both simulation program and experiment. The results show that the Graphene calculation method used in this paper is in good agreement with compared program. Grapheneprogram has better results than compared program by comparing with the experimental results. The research methods and results of this paper can provide an important reference for the safe emission control of nuclear power and the implementation of relevant regulations.
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    ICRU Report 95: Operational quantities and consequences for dosimetry
    Hans Menzel, Thomas Otto
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (1): 11-16.  
    Abstract105)      PDF(pc) (2752KB)(63)       Save
    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) introduced so-called protection quantities. The most used protection quantity, the effective dose E, serves to set exposure limits and is used in operational radiation protection to implement the optimization principle.Effective dose, however, is not a measurable quantity. That is the reason why the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) introduced measurable (operational) quantities for dosimetry of external radiation to provide acceptable estimates of effective dose.Presently used operational quantities were defined in the 1980s, when nuclear industry was the predominant concern of occupational radiation protection. In other radiation fields, in particular for high-energy radiations, shortcomings of today’s operational quantities became evident: the effective dose can be either over- or underestimated.Based on a comprehensive study, ICRU and ICRP have now introduced new operational quantities for the dosimetry of external radiation to overcome these shortcomings. The new definition of operational quantities is more closely related to the definition of protection quantities including the effective dose, in particular by using the same anthropomorphic phantom. The proposed operational quantities simplify the system of radiation protection quantities—by reducing the difference in the definitions of protection and operational quantities—and provide in general an improved estimate of effective dose. The consequences of introducing new operational quantities on practical dosimetry are discussed in the paper.
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    Co-operation between China and Nuclear Energy Agency: review and prospects
    LI Jinfeng, ZENG Chao, XIAO Lili, LI Xuefeng, REN Lixia, ZHANG Qinghua, WANG Lijiao
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2022, 42 (6): 505-517.  
    Abstract103)      PDF(pc) (9918KB)(60)       Save
    Through a number of international and multilateral co-operation mechanisms on nuclear energy or nuclear safety, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), as one of important international organisations in nuclear field, forges common understanding among countries on a broad range of key civil nuclear technology and policy issues, promotes the development of advanced nuclear power technologies and provides suggestions for governments in the areas of energy and sustainable development of low-carbon economies. China has participated in NEA activities since 2002. China has engaged in formulating technical documents and development strategies, and improved the level of global governance in the nuclear field. This paper systematically reviewed the co-operation between China and NEA in the past 20 years, especially the important progress in the fields of nuclear safety, radioactive waste management, decommissioning and legacy management, radiological protection, nuclear law and the fourth generation nuclear systems, and provided suggestions for further strengthening international co-operation and enhancing China's international influence.
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    The research trends of linear non threshold hypothesis on cancer induced by ionizing radiation
    LIU Xiaoming, WU Xiaoyan, MA Yuefeng, ZHANG Yanna, XUE Xiangming, GU Xiaona, ZHAN Jingming, LIU Zhanqi, BIAN Linxiu
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2022, 42 (6): 518-524.  
    Abstract92)      PDF(pc) (1650KB)(73)       Save
    The linear non threshold (LNT) model for cancer induced by ionizing radiation is the Foundation and basis of nuclear and radiation protection supervision. However, in recent years, the validity of LNT risk model has been questioned more and more. It is considered that the LNT based regulatory system has brought excessive cost to the society. In this paper, the recent international literature on LNT is studied to explore the development trend and further research direction of LNT, so as to provide reference for the domestic work in related fields.
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    Applicability analysis of linear non threshold model for low dose radiation
    ZHENG Guofeng, SHANG Yuyao, XU Haifeng
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2022, 42 (6): 525-531.  
    Abstract91)      PDF(pc) (1220KB)(66)       Save
    For radiation protection purposes, it has been assume that the overall risk of radiation-induced cancer increases as a 1inear-nonthreshold function of the radiation dose. However, epidemiological evaluation cannot support and validate LNT model, and studies on biological effects of low dose radiation have found new results that are not conducive to the LNT model. The existing data do not exclude the existence of a threshold, and the dose-response relationship is known to vary, depending on the type of cancer, the dose, dose rate, and the LET of the radiation, the age, sex, and physiological state of the exposed individuals as well as other variables. On this basis, it is concluded that no alternative dose-response model for the carcinogenic effects of low-dose radiation is more plausible than the linear-non-threshold model, although other dose-response relationships cannot be excluded. Before the establishment of the new theory and new model, LNT model is still the most realistic attitude, and LNT is also the best methodology for radiation protection so far.
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    Discussion on the development of simulation training system for nuclear emergency in the armed forces
    YUAN Wei, WANG Gang, LI Miao, LI Xiao, CHEN Xianbo
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2022, 42 (6): 625-629.  
    Abstract86)      PDF(pc) (2704KB)(52)       Save
    In this paper, the necessity and the pattern of developing the simulation training system of nuclear emergency under new situation are expounded in view of the current problems in the military nuclear emergency training. The main ideas, basic considerations, main objectives, overall structure and the functional design of the subsystem are introduced in detail. The purpose of this paper is to provide theoretical support and method guidance for improving the capacity of nuclear emergency response at all levels of the army.
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    Counting rate correcting method of gamma spectrum based on Digital Multichannel Analyzer
    CHEN Chen, WU Huan
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (1): 31-37.  
    Abstract76)      PDF(pc) (2339KB)(48)       Save
    Affected by the dead-time, the Digital Multichannel Analyzer (DMCA) which receives gamma spectrum will occur counting rate loss. This effect will bring some errors to γ spectrum analysis. Therefore it is necessary to correct the gamma spectrum with counting rate loss. Based on the dead-time model of Digital Multichannel Analyzer, Lambert W function is used to establish the closed form solution of real counting rate relative to the measured counting rate. Then the definition of counting rate limit of DMCA and the theoretical calculation of the optimal threshold of the dead time of the fast channel are proposed, and the pulse signal detected by fast channel is used as the basis of counting rate correction. Based on this basis, a method for correcting the counting rate of gamma spectrum is proposed. Experimental results show that this method can correct the counting rate loss effectively;Within the range of counting rate less than 1.8 Mcps of DMCA [using LaBr3(Ce) detector], the relative inherent error of the net counting rate at the corrected characteristic peak is less than 9%, and the linear correlation coefficient between the net counting rate at the characteristic peak and the doserate was above 0.995, which broadens the application range of Digital Multichannel Analyzer.
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    Study on statistical method of effluent emissions from nuclear power plant
    DANG Yuqin, WANG Wenhai, ZHENG Guofeng, ZHU Kun
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (4): 300-310.  
    Abstract75)      PDF(pc) (5576KB)(56)       Save
    The statistics of radioactive effluent emissions from operating nuclear power plants is an important work. However, it is found in practice that the activity concentrations of many radionuclides in the effluents from nuclear power plants are not high, and the analysis results are often lower than the detection limit in the effluent emissions statistics. In this context, it is a challenge to make deep research on how the monitoring data can be processed to bring emissions statistics closer to actual emissions. In this paper, the monitoring data of effluents from Qinshan nuclear power base in recent years are collected; their numerical distribution characteristics are analyzed and studied; the statistical method and strategy of effluent emissions based on radionuclide detection rate are put forward; and the recommended value of the value coefficient of the detection limit of effluent is given. By comparing with the statistical results of traditional methods and by analyzing the differences, it is considered that the statistical method and strategy based on radionuclide detection rate is realistic and feasible, and the statistical results are closer to the actual emission situation, which is worthy of further research.
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    Solubility of typical PGMs in HLLW glass and influence of PGMs on the properties of HLLW glass
    LU Jiawei, LIN Peng, LI Lili, ZHAO Xing, WANG Yi, WENG Hanqin, LIN Mingzhang
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (1): 17-30.  
    Abstract74)      PDF(pc) (4667KB)(79)       Save
    This paper mainly summarized the chemical behaviors (the content and the existing form) of precious metals (PGMs) in high-level liquid radioactive waste (HLLW) and the solubility, the existing form and the granularity of PGMs in HLLW glass. At the same time, the influence of PGMs on the properties of HLLW glass (rheology, viscosity, thermal conductivity and resistance) was summarized. The results were expected to provide a research basis for the solubility, the chemical behavior and sediment mechanism of typical PGMs in HLLW glass. Besides, The results were hopeful to provide a theoretical basis for studying the influence of typical PGMs on the properties of HLLW glass.
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    Study on background value of soil natural radionuclides in Dandong area
    ZHENG Cunde, LIU Qingkuan, DONG Guochao, SUN Yu
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2022, 42 (6): 579-584.  
    Abstract74)      PDF(pc) (3767KB)(52)       Save
    In order to clarify the background value of soil radioactivity in Dandong area, representative soil in Dandong area was used as research object, and the specific activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in 0-10 cm soil layer were measured by RMS 4096-USB digital low background multichannel r spectrometer. Results were evaluated by Nemero comprehensive evaluation method. The results show that the average specific activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in 0-10 cm soil layer in Dandong area are 100.12 Bq·kg-1, 11.84 Bq·kg-1 and 688.65 Bq·kg-1 respectively. And the Nemero comprehensive index is 3.17, 0.35, 1.07, which is at a high level in Liaoning province and at a normal level in the whole country.
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    Study on the absolute activity measurement method of 125I nuclide point source and volume source by HPGe spectrometer
    ZHANG Lei
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2022, 42 (6): 556-562.  
    Abstract74)      PDF(pc) (2301KB)(68)       Save
    This paper derived the 125I activity calculation formula based on the coincidence summing characteristics of 125I nuclide X-ray and γ ray. The formula only included the net counting rate of the full-energy peaks (27.3, 35.5, 31.2 keV), the net counting rate of the sum-peaks (58.5, 66.7 keV) and the net counting rate of the total spectrum. The point source, activated carbon cartridge source and liquid source were verified by Broad-energy and N-type germanium spectrometer. When the distance from point source to detector was less than 5cm, the relative deviation between the calculated results of the absolute activity and the reference values was within ±1.2%. The self-absorption effect of 125I nuclide in activated carbon cartridge could be ignored, and the absolute activity calculation formula was not affected by the distribution form of 125I nuclide. The relative deviation of front and rear measurements for activated carbon cartridge source was within ±1.4%. The relative deviation between the measurement results and reference values of liquid source with volume less than 40mL was within ±2.6%. The sample height should not be too high during the measurement of liquid source, so as to reduce the weakening effect of self-absorption on sum-peaks. The experimental results show that the absolute activity calculation formula derived in this paper can be used to accurately measure the activity of 125I nuclide without relying on standard substances and nuclide parameters.
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    Method discription and simulation verification of a coded aperture gamma camera with different vertical and horizontal fields of view
    LI Yan, LIU Liye, CAO Qinjian, ZHAO Yuan, XIA Sanqiang, DONG Jiajie
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2022, 42 (6): 548-555.  
    Abstract70)      PDF(pc) (8789KB)(37)       Save
    The method of the imaging system based on the M-M coded method is discussed, and the model of the imaging system based on the M-M coding method is established through Monte Carlo software MCNP. Using radiation sources of different energies at different positions to irradiate coding collimators with different thicknesses, it is determined that the optimal thickness of the coded collimator is 10mm by analyzing and explaining the reconstructed image SNR obtained. Then the response of the imaging system based on the optimal parameters of coded mask to the single-point source, multi-point source and extended source was simulated. The reconstructed image SNR of the single-point source reached 40.36, and the imaging system also successfully reconstructed the shape of the extended source. There are no fluctuating sidelobes in the background of reconstructed images of point and extended source. The above results prove the excellent performance of the M-M coded method, and it has the potential to replace MURA or URA in special scenarios. This article can lay the foundation for the subsequent development of coded aperture gamma camera based on M-M coded method.
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    Design and development of a variable angular resolution gamma camera based on LaBr3(Ce) crystal-coupled SiPM array
    SHI Boxuan, LI Yan, CAO Qinjian, ZHAO Yuan, XIA Sanqiang, WANG Chongyang, LIU Liye
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (1): 38-46.  
    Abstract68)      PDF(pc) (9514KB)(38)       Save
    Coded aperture imaging technology is widely used in nuclear safety, nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning measurement as well as nuclear medicine due to its advantages of high detection efficiency, high signal-to-noise ratio, good angular resolution, and stable and reliable imaging quality. Aiming at the problems of the fixed imaging field of view and angular resolution of the traditional coded aperture gamma imaging system, a gamma imaging system with variable angular resolution is proposed by changing the distance between the coded collimator and the detector. The imaging system is mainly composed of coded collimator, position sensitive detector (PSD), data acquisition card and image reconstruction system. The coded collimator of the imaging system adopts the Modified Uniformly Redundant Array (MURA) coded method. In order to ensure the detection ability of higher energy rays, the material of the coding collimator adopts tungsten copper alloy with 90% tungsten content. The PSD is composed of LaBr3(Ce) crystal coupled SiPM array, and the reconstruction algorithm adopts the direct convolution algorithm which is fast and efficient. The test results show that the average energy resolution of the PSD is 4.96% (662 keV). The radiation imaging system can accurately locate Am-241, Cs-137, and Co-60 clearly, and can successfully distinguish the positions of two Cs-137 point sources by changing the distance between the coded collimator and the detector.
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    Experimental study on the radon exhalation from the soil overburden of uranium tailing pond under prefabricated fractures
    WANG Hong, HE Runcheng, LIU Yong, HONG Changshou, LI Xiangyang, LUO Mengke, WANG Jianmin
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2022, 42 (6): 603-610.  
    Abstract67)      PDF(pc) (12823KB)(20)       Save
    Faced with the problem of radon exhalation from fractures in soil overburden layer of uranium tailing pond, a simulation experiment of radon exhalation from fractures in soil overburden layer of uranium tailing pond was carried out with a self-made test device, and the effects of different fracture parameters (depth, number and dip angle) on radon exhalation from overburden layer were studied. The results show that the radon exhalation is mainly affected by the pore-fracture migration path, and the radon exhalation rate has a positive linear correlation with the fracture depth. The shortest pore migration distance is shortened with the increase of fracture inclination angle, and the radon exhalation rate for slope angle of 60° increases by 0.164 Bq·m-2·s-1 than that of 45°. The pore-fracture path has an influence boundary on radon exhalation on tailing pond surface, and the increase of radon exhalation decreases greatly after the overlap of the fracture affected area. The shortest pore path proportion ζ is introduced, and there is a good correlation between ζ and radon precipitation J. The research results can provide a theoretical reference for radon control of tailing pond surface.
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    Main challenges for the application of the ICRP recommendations: Recent and future developments
    Thierry Schneider
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (1): 1-10.  
    Abstract67)      PDF(pc) (2745KB)(67)       Save
    Following the publication of the general recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 2007, several developments have been made to address the challenges associated with the implementation of these recommendations into practice. Notably, the introduction of the three types of exposure situations (i.e. planned, existing and emergency exposure situations) for managing the radiological protection has led to further investigate their application in several domains such as industrial activities involving naturally occurring radioactive materials and emergency and recovery situations following a nuclear accident. This paper highlights the main issues addressed in some recent publications and on-going with a focus on the development related to the ethical foundations of the radiological protection system, the application of the radiological protection system for managing existing exposure situations and the integration of the environmental radiological protection in the ICRP system of protection. Finally, the aims of the new Task Groups set up in 2022 related to the application of the radiological protection system are presented.
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    Application study of radioactive decay corrections to the analysis of gaseous effluents monitoring samples from nuclear power plant
    YIN Wangming, YOU Chengmao, MEI Xiangjie, ZHOU Kebo
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (1): 55-63.  
    Abstract63)      PDF(pc) (1977KB)(66)       Save
    In the analysis of radioactive samples, radionuclides decay correction methods could be classified into three different stages(types): correction for decay during the counting period, correction for decay prior to the starting time of counting, and the correction for decay during the sampling duration. Based on the law of radioactive decay, the principles of three different types of decay correction methods are explained. Aiming at the gaseous effluents monitoring and samples analysis in nuclear power plants, for the short half-life radionuclides of noble gases & iodines, the necessity of decay corrections which were applied to the specific activity results is analyzed and the decay correction factors of three different types are calculated. For gamma-ray spectrometry, experimental results reveal that the Minimum Detectable Concentration(MDC) of radionuclide is directly related to the decay corrections. The application scheme of decay corrections for gaseous effluents monitoring samples analysis in nuclear power plants is introduced and studied. For the short half-life radionuclides of noble gases & iodines, the monitoring analytical data deviation was reduced by the implementation of the reasonable conservative corrections scheme, and the conservativeness of statistical emissions could be ensured too.
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    Development and application of automatic grasp and security linkage system for radioactive sources in urban radioactive waste repository in Sichuan province
    TANG Hui, XU Bin, WANG Yan, DENG Xiaoqin, GU Hong
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2022, 42 (6): 611-617.  
    Abstract63)      PDF(pc) (2953KB)(39)       Save
    In order to achieve automatic grasp and to improve the security leve of urban radioactive waste repository in Sichuan provincel, this study carried out the design and development of the automatic grasp system of radioactive sources in urban radioactive waste repository and the security linkage system of radioactive waste repository. By designing the loading and unloading system of radioactive sources and the automatic grasping software system, which are interlinked with the dose monitoring system, radio frequency system and vehicle channel monitoring system of the waste repository, the functions of automatic access and safety linkage management of radioactive sources in the radioactive waste repository are realized. It has achieved the effect of effectively reducing the dose of the staff and improving the safety level of the waste repository. Through this study, the feasibility of the automatic grasp system of radioactive sources and the safety linkage technology of the warehouse is verified, and a new idea is put forward for the storage and management of radioactive waste, and a strong support is provided for the further development of the application of nuclear technology.
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    Analysis of iodine-removing performance of venturi scrubber in containment filtration and discharge system
    WANG Zhen, ZHANG Jirong, BAI Dongjin, MIAO Qiyuan, LI Yongguo, REN Hongzheng, WANG Jia, ZHANG Yuan, QIU Dangui, HOU Jianrong
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2022, 42 (6): 598-602.  
    Abstract62)      PDF(pc) (3282KB)(42)       Save
    In this paper, the operation conditions of Venturi scrubbers in nuclear power plants is simulated with a CFD numerical simulation method. The influence of the change of air flow velocity and system pressure on the ejection volume was analyzed. Combined with the experiment method, the influence of the ejection capacity of the Venturi scrubber on iodine removal efficiency was discussed, and some guiding suggestions for the discharge conditions of the containment filtration and discharge system of a nuclear power plant were put forward. The results show that increasing air flow velocity can increase the injection amount, and the injection amount presents an approximate linear growth relationship. Meanwhile, the pressure difference between the inside and outside of the suction tube presents an approximate parabola law. The iodine removal efficiency of the system is consistent with the increasing trend of the injection amount in the initial stage, and then tends to be stable after the injection amount reaches a certain level. In order to ensure a high iodine removal efficiency, the exhaust air flow of the system should be kept above 3 300 m3/h. In the range of 0.1 to 0.5 MPa system pressure, the iodine removal efficiency can be maintained at a high level. The increase of pressure is helpful to the increase of ejection capacity, and the increase is more obvious in the high flow area.
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    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (4): 0-0.  
    Abstract62)      PDF(pc) (184KB)(62)       Save
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    Investigation on X-ray diagnostic equipment and examination frequency of medical institutions in Qingdao city
    ZHANG Xiuyun, LIU Jie, LIU Zhenyou, CHE Zijing, CUI Xinjian
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2022, 42 (6): 630-636.  
    Abstract60)      PDF(pc) (1328KB)(37)       Save
    Documenting the distribution of radiology diagnosis professional staff, equipment and frequency is an important health economics problem. The aim of this report is to provide a data base for the application of radio-diagnostic resources in Qingdao city. Totally 230 medical institutions (not include dental clinics) equipped with X-ray diagnostic equipment were surveyed by questionnaire, and the data were collected from April 1, 2020 to March 31, 2021. There are 61.7% X-ray radio-diagnosis professionals in Grade III hospitals, but only 5.5% professionals are working in not rated hospitals. The ratio of X-ray radio-diagnosis professional between male and female is 1.59∶1. Totally 921 X-ray diagnostic equipment in Qingdao city were used. DR (33.44%) and CT (22.69%) are the most common used X-ray equipment. 23 Grade III hospitals possess 40.28% of all X-ray diagnostic equipment, with average 16.13 in each one. The frequency of X-ray diagnostic medical examinations is 688.24 per 1000 population, and CT accounts for 52.65% of them. The professionals and equipment in Grade III hospitals are dominant than that in secondary and primary Grade hospitals and not rated hospitals. CT scanning should be paid more attention because it constitutes more than half of all X-ray diagnostic medical examinations.
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    Research and evaluation of natural environmental γ radiation dose rate data preprocessing method based on time sequences analysis
    BAI Fan, LI Xuezhen, MA Guoxue, YANG Yong
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (2): 128-136.  
    Abstract57)      PDF(pc) (6548KB)(45)       Save
    In recent years, data preprocessing and utilization of natural environmental γ radiation dose rate have become one of the hot spots in the field of environmental quality monitoring. This paper proposes data preprocessing procedures through statistical data analysis, data cleaning, and time sequences denoising. And this paper also investigates the impact of data preprocessing with evaluation to provide high-quality data for outliers detection techniques based on long short-term memory (LSTM). After data preprocessing, data quality is improved, and the outliers detection is significantly improved in terms of accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score ect. Data preprocessing lays a good foundation for further data mining and research of outliers.
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    Mechanisms and factors affecting radon exhalation from surface of uranium mill tailing pond with compacted soil cover: An overview
    LIANG Kaiqi, HONG Changshou, CHEN Zhibin, ZHAO Tianji, WANG Hong, LI Xiangyang, LIU Yong
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (2): 97-113.  
    Abstract56)      PDF(pc) (11753KB)(42)       Save
    Radon generates from porous emanation media such as soil, uranium mill tailing and rock. The sediment surface of uranium mill tailing accumulation is always in direct contact to atmospheric environment. Radon transports from soil to air and distributes homogeneously in the surroundings while alternative cover is designed to satisfy the management control of uranium mill tailing. This paper presents a literature review of radon migration process and its influence factors in uranium mill tailing, which illustrates the mechanism of the emanation characteristics of porous media and meteorological conditions on radon exhalation from uranium mill tailing. A lot of such studies have been carried out by scholars at home and abroad, but due to different experimental scale and research methods, the interpretation of the influence of mineral grain characteristics on radon exhalation mechanism is still controversial, and the influence mechanism of external meteorological environment and other factors on radon exhalation on the surface of uranium mill tailing pond is still unclear. Therefore, further work is proposed: (1) the characterization of radon exhalation process under natural conditions; (2) large-scale experiment is to be carried out for the influence mechanism of porous emanation media on radon exhalation from uranium mill tailing.
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    Optimization of medical emergency treatment process at nuclear accident site based on operation level
    ZHAO Hongjun, WANG Fang, LU Zhijuan, JIAO Ling
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2022, 42 (6): 618-624.  
    Abstract56)      PDF(pc) (1214KB)(46)       Save
    By comparing the nuclear emergency standards at home and abroad, combining the medical emergency treatment experience during international major nuclear accident emergency and the experience of domestic nuclear emergency drills, the radiation protection, triage, decontamination, psychological intervention aspects during emergency response on nuclear accident site are analyzed. Suggestions on process optimization at the operational level are put forward to help improve the capability of professional nuclear emergency rescue teams.
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    Assessment of uncertainty in collecting radioactive soil samples by sampling and analytical quality control (SAX)
    BAO Li, CHEN Ling, REN Xiaona, WANG Ruijun
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (1): 47-54.  
    Abstract55)      PDF(pc) (1338KB)(36)       Save
    Sampling uncertainty is one of an important part of the uncertainty in radiation environmental monitoring results. Because of the difficulty of quantifying sampling uncertainty, at present, the uncertainty of monitoring results of radiation environment only includes the analysis process, without considering the sampling process. Sampling design using SAX method and data analysis using robust variance analysis method can quantify the uncertainty of sampling process. A batch of actual monitoring data are analyzed by the SAX method, and the sampling uncertainty is obtained. And the uncertainty of monitoring results is studied carefully. It is considered that SAX method can be used to guide the monitoring of radiation environment, so as to optimize the monitoring strategy and to improve the monitoring quality.
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    Follow-up evaluation of diagnostic criteria for common radiation diseases ——Radiological health supervisors
    MA Ya, HOU Dianjun, MAO Xuesong, LIU Wei, WANG Xiankai
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2022, 42 (6): 540-547.  
    Abstract54)      PDF(pc) (2719KB)(38)       Save
    According to WS/T 536—2017, “Health Standards Tracking and Evaluation Work Guide.”, 337 radiation health supervisors in 7 provinces of China were polled via questionnaires, regarding their knowledge, comprehension, and application of the current diagnostic criteria for 5 prevalent radiological diseases. Only 47.5 percent (160) of radiation health supervisors are familiar with all five diagnostic criteria for radiological diseases, and 18.4 percent (62) of them are only familiar with one of the criteria, indicating the need for improvement in knowledge, familiarity, understanding, and application of these criteria by radiation health supervisors. The standard “Diagnosis of Acute Radiation Diseases from Occupational External Exposure” has been trained or disseminated to 60% of the health supervisors, whereas the standard “Diagnosis of Occupational Radiation Cataract” has been disseminated only to 4% of the health supervisors. When completing health monitoring duties, about 60% of the respondents used the conventional diagnostic criteria, but citations typically occurred once a year. More than 92% of the supervisors who responded to the survey thought that the diagnostic criteria are in line with the requirements of the prevailing national laws, rules, and standards for occupational disease prevention and treatment. For each criterion, less than 20% of respondents said it wasn’t feasible. More than 50% of supervisory institutions lacks specialized management support funds for occupational disease diagnosis requirements. Only 198 (58.75%) of the respondents’ institutions engaged in specific supervision of diagnostic institutions’ quality management. Less than 20% of respondents to the subjective question survey gave their opinion on the survey. We should increase training and dissemination of diagnostic criteria for radiation health supervisory staff in order to enhance their capacity to implement the standards. Health supervision agencies should increase funding to strengthen special supervision of radiological diagnostic institutions and establish an effective feedback mechanism.
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    Effects of substance P on cell cycle and apoptosis of irradiated skin fibroblasts
    LIU Xiaoming, DANG Xuhong, ZHANG Ruifeng, LI Xiaozhen, YUAN Yayi, LIU Hongyan, CHAI Dongliang, REN Yue, ZHANG Zhongxin, ZUO Yahui
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (1): 83-89.  
    Abstract54)      PDF(pc) (4851KB)(23)       Save
    To explore the effects of substance P on cell cycle and apoptosis of irradiated skin fibroblasts, Human Foreskin Fibroblasts (HFF-1) in logarithmic growth phase were divided into five experimental groups: 0 Gy group, 12 Gy group, 18 Gy group, 12 Gy+SP group and 18 Gy+SP group. The experimental groups were irradiated with electron beam at doses of 12 Gy and 18 Gy, while the 12 Gy+SP group and 18 Gy+SP group were treated with 10-7 mol/L SP one hour before irradiation. After 48 hours of irradiation, cell cycle and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry. The expression of apoptosis-related genes Bcl-2 and Bax in cells of each experimental group was quantitatively detected by real-time quantitative PCR. Cell cycle detection showed that the percentage of cells in G2 phase in 12 Gy and 18 Gy experimental groups was significantly higher than that in 0 Gy group. And, compared with the 18 Gy experimental group, the percentage of cells in G2 phase in the 18 Gy+SP experimental group was significantly lower than that in the 18 Gy group. Apoptosis detection showed that compared with 0 Gy experimental group, the apoptosis rate of 12 Gy and 18 Gy irradiation group increased significantly, while the apoptosis rate of substance P intervention group (12 Gy+SP, 18 Gy+SP) was significantly lower than that of radiation group (12 Gy, 18 Gy). Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR detection of Bcl-2 and Bax expression showed that compared with 0 Gy experimental group, Bax gene expression was significantly increased and Bcl-2 gene expression was significantly decreased in 12 Gy and 18 Gy irradiated groups. And, the expression of Bcl-2 gene in substance P intervention group (12 Gy+SP and 18 Gy+SP) was significantly higher than that in radiation group (12 Gy and 18 Gy), but there was no significant difference in Bax gene expression. The above results suggest that electron irradiation can induce apoptosis and cell G2 phase arrest of human skin fibroblasts. Substance P can inhibit the apoptosis and G2 phase arrest of human skin fibroblasts damaged by radiation.
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    Evaluation of 137Cs radioactivity level and the induced resident external exposure dose in soils surrounding a nuclear facility
    LI Lifan, WEN Fuping, HU Xiang, LI Huiping
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (4): 318-324.  
    Abstract52)      PDF(pc) (2969KB)(23)       Save
    137Cs is an artificial radionuclide that has been paid special attention in environmental monitoring of nuclear facilities. In this paper, the 137Cs radioactivity level in soils around a nuclear facility was statistically analyzed, and was compared with similar nuclear facilities from 2012 to 2021. The background deduction method was established for the external radiation dose caused by 137Cs in soils, and the resident external radiation dose caused by 137Cs in soils around the nuclear facility was estimated. The results showed that the activity concentration of 137Cs in soil samples around the nuclear facility decreased first and then increased from 2012 to 2021, and the average activity concentration of 1.81 Bq/kg in recent ten years was slightly higher than that of similar nuclear facilities. From the point of view of monitoring locations, four of the six locations with the highest average 137Cs activity concentration are distributed within a 2 km radius of the nuclear facility. The annual effective dose caused by 137Cs from soil samples around the nuclear facility was 1.24 μSv, which was only 0.5% of the target annual dose for the public specified for the nuclear facility.
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    Monte Carlo continuation calculation method based on complex intermediate surfaces
    YU Hong, LV Huanwen
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (1): 77-82.  
    Abstract51)      PDF(pc) (2975KB)(53)       Save
    In order to improve computational efficiency of large and complex problems, a Monte Carlo Continuation Calculation method is proposed for structures with multiple spatial surfaces and complex curved surfaces. In this method, the external boundary of the structure is used as the source for the continuation calculation, and the sum of the calculation results of the source writing process and the continuation calculation process is taken as the final result. In terms of efficiency improvement, the method can avoid repeated calculation of the same structure in the process of direct calculation by means of one source writing process and several continuation calculation processes, which greatly improves the computational efficiency. A typical reactor structure calculation model is established by MCNP, and the continuation calculation results of four structural schemes are compared with those of direct calculation method. The results show that the calculation of the continuation method is consistent with those of the direct method, and the efficiency of the continuation calculation method is about three times higher than that of the direct calculation method. Therefore, the Monte Carlo continuation Calculation method proposed in this study can achieve significant efficiency improvement for large and complex problems involving a large number of repeated calculations.
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    Uranium content survey of well water around Bayanwula uranium mining area in Inner Mongolia
    ZHANG Shuai, HA Ribala, GE Rilemandahu, XU Xiao, SUN Zhichao, BAO Yulong, WANG Chengguo
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (2): 137-144.  
    Abstract51)      PDF(pc) (5586KB)(35)       Save
    With the search and exploitation of uranium ore, it has become a common concern whether the water around uranium mine is contaminated by uranium. The total uranium concentration of all water samples from 98 wells within 30 km around the uranium mine was monitored. The results showed that the total uranium concentration of 98 well water samples ranged from 3.74 to 125.18 μg/L and 3.76 to 150.36 μg/L during dry and wet periods, respectively. And the total uranium concentration of some samples was higher than the 30 μg/L. The survey also found that installation of drinking water filtration device can significantly reduce the amount of uranium in the well water.
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    Research on the module structure design of simulation workplace neutron spectrum device based on DT neutron source
    LI Hui, LI Deyuan, YAN Xuewen, ZHANG Pengpeng, CHEN Faguo, LI Hua
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (3): 209-217.  
    Abstract49)      PDF(pc) (7577KB)(33)       Save
    Neutron dose is highly dependent on its energy. However, the energy spectrum of the calibration field is different from workplace, which could lead to a large deviation in the measurement of neutron dose at workplace. Using simulation workplace neutron spectrum for equipment calibration will improve the accuracy of neutron dose measurements. In this paper, the modular construction method of the simulated workplace neutron spectrum and the structural design method of the device were studied based on the DT neutron source, the simulated spectrum with the characteristics of workplace neutron spectrum at pressurized water reactors (PWR), and its fuel cycle. By analyzing the T(d, n)4He reaction emission neutron’s energy spectrum and angular distribution law, a point source with an average energy of 14.1 MeV Gaussian distribution and isotropic emission was used to approximate the DT neutron source. 14 alternative materials were selected according to the interaction cross-section of neutron and matter, the relative neutron fluence ratio and average neutron energy were analyzed. And the materials for constructing the simulation workplace neutron spectrum device were selected from the perspectives of neutron multiplication, energy attenuation, energy spectrum adjustment, and practicality. Two workplace neutron spectrum of the pump room and reactor hall were selected as target spectrum. Main moderation assembly, modulating layers and reflector assembly were designed. The simulated neutron spectrum and device structure for the two workplace target spectrum were constructed. The results show that the construction method of the simulated workplace neutron spectrum described in this paper is effective, and the modular design is highly expandable, which can be adapted to a variety of workplace target spectrum to construct the simulated spectrum.
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    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (3): 279-279.  
    Abstract49)      PDF(pc) (532KB)(56)       Save
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    RADIATION PROTECTION    2022, 42 (6): 636-636.  
    Abstract47)      PDF(pc) (635KB)(47)       Save
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    Application of ArcGIS to regional population surveys and statistics at nuclear facility sites
    CHEN Chunyan, ZOU Ke, WEN Fuping
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2022, 42 (6): 593-597.  
    Abstract47)      PDF(pc) (10081KB)(26)       Save
    In this paper, the population data of administrative villages and natural villages within a radius of 5 km arounda nuclear facility site and the scope of its residential area were obtained through field investigation and visits. The demographic data of the towns within the radius of 80 km around the plant site were obtained by means of data collection. With the help of 91 Vetu Assistant software and ArcGIS software, a statistical analysis model of regional population data of nuclear facility sites was established, and the population distribution of nuclear facility sites was statistically analyzed.
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    Research on neutron shielding performance and the secondary γ dose simulation of tungsten boride material
    CHI Xiaomiao, HAN Yi, LIU Liye, CHEN Faguo, LI Guodong, SHEN Huaya, YANG Mingming, SUN Yansong
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (4): 343-352.  
    Abstract47)      PDF(pc) (15558KB)(30)       Save
    In order to neutron absorption and secondary γ ray shielding performance. In this paper, the Geant4 program is used to simulate and analyze the incident neutrons with material thickness from 0 to 2 cm and energy from thermal neutron to 20 MeV. The results show that: (1) W-B series compounds mainly act on the absorption and shielding of neutron energy from thermal neutrons to 10-2 MeV; When the thickness is constant, the neutron absorption performance of W2B5 is the best; When the mass is constant, WB4 has the best neutron absorption performance. (2) From the neutron macroscopic cross section and material density of different materials, compared with traditional neutron absorbing materials, W-B series compounds have more significant advantages in low-energy neutron absorption. Taking thermal neutrons as an example, the neutron macroscopic l cross section of W2B5 material is about 8.67 times that of B203 material and 40.59 times that of PB202 shielding material.(3) the contribution of the secondary γ dose to the total dose decrease with the increase of the incident neutron energyand the contribution of the secondary γ dose to the total dose increase with the increase of the thickness of the shielding material. study provides a reference for the realization of the optimal design of neutron shielding devices for clarifying the application advantages and application scenarios of W-B series compounds, and has practical engineering guidance value.
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    Study on the testing device of diffusion sampling radon measuring instrument and preliminary application
    ZHAO Ying, CHEN Zhi, HU Xudong, WANG Chengnan, XIAO Mengren, BAO Zhicheng
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2022, 42 (6): 571-578.  
    Abstract46)      PDF(pc) (3524KB)(26)       Save
    The response ability and stability of radon detector are the key factors to ensure the effectiveness of seismic monitoring and prediction. As a new method of moniroing Seismic underground fluid, the response ability and stability of electrostatic collection diffusion radon detector are related to the applicability of continuous seismic monitoring. In order to meet the detection requirements of the diffusion sampling radon for seismic monitoring, this study designed a test equipment for diffusion sampling radon detector based on the high radon content well water sample of Jiujiang No.2 well, and tested the response ability and stability of a electrostatic collection diffusion sampling radon detector under high concentration. The results show that the concentration of radon in the test device can switch between 0-120 kBq/m3 and can be relatively stable for a long time under the target concentration. The response time of the radon detector at high concentration is 2 hours and the stability is less than 5% for 8 h. The test device consists of crossflow module, degassing module, drying bottle, test chamber, measuring standard, air pump, etc, which can be used to test the response ability and stability of seismic monitoring diffusion sampling radon meter.
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    Progress of research on electromagnetic radiation safety of implantable medical devices
    HE Diwei, CHEN Zhiying, TANG Danfeng, ZHANG Ying
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (3): 193-208.  
    Abstract45)      PDF(pc) (15515KB)(31)       Save
    Long-term or excessive exposure of the human body to electromagnetic radiation may cause some health effect. When medical devices are implanted into human body, the level of electromagnetic radiation exposed to human body will be increased. With the widespread application of implantable medical devices, the safety of electromagnetic radiation containing such devices cannot be ignored. Implantable medical devices often communicate with the outside world or have power supply wirelessly. On the one hand, its existence will change the electromagnetic field distribution of external radiation sources in hu-man tissues, which may increase the level of electromagnetic radiation; on the other hand, it is a radiation source itself and will generate electromagnetic radiation in human tissues. Many countries and international organizations use the specific absorption rate to measure the impact of electromagnetic radiation on the human body, and use it to formulate safety limits for electromag-netic radiation. This paper reviews domestic and foreign research on electromagnetic radiation safety in the communication and charging scenarios of implantable medical devices, and focuses on the electromagnetic field metrology methods, related models and influencing factors of electromagnetic radiation specific absorption rate research. Finally, the numerical calculation and ex-perimental measurement methods are discussed and compared, and the important factors affecting the specific absorption rate are analyzed, which will provide reference to the engineering design of parameters such as optimal operating frequency and power limit.
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    Brief description of changes in screening coefficients in the revision of IAEA Safety Report Series No.19 (SRS 19)
    CHEN Jiachen, WANG Yan, LIAN Bing, YANG Jie, YUE Qi, WU Feifei, MENG Binchi
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (1): 72-76.  
    Abstract44)      PDF(pc) (855KB)(24)       Save
    The paper introduces the IAEA Safety Report Series No. 19 (SRS 19) and the revised version of SRS 19; expounds the necessity of revision and summarizes the changes of screening coefficient of the three kinds of discharge pathways, namely surface water discharge, air discharge and sewage pipeline system discharge. The paper also provides reference for prospective assessment of public exposure and environmental impact caused by radioactive material discharge.
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    Research on fast searching method of radioactive sources based on parameter estimation and cross locating
    XU Hang, AI Xianyun, GUAN Xian, QI Sheng, XIE Jianming, WANG Ying
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2022, 42 (6): 563-570.  
    Abstract44)      PDF(pc) (8295KB)(19)       Save
    The rapid and accurate search of lost radioactive sources is the core technology for radioactive source locating by aerial measurement. In this paper, the advantage and disadvantages of two methods, parameter estimation and cross locating method, were analyzed. Monte Carlo simulation was used to obtain the dose rate distribution of 137Cs point radioactive source and natural background in the model of air-ground interface. Based on the simulation data, The optimal sampling range of the parameter estimation method (the minimum distribution range of sampling points required for maximum positioning accuracy) and the optimal threshold of the cross locating method (the minimum dose rate when the positioning success rate is greater than 95%) were obtained respectively. Aiming at the problem that the parameter estimation method is time-consuming and the accuracy of cross location method is poor, based on the obtained optimal parameters, a combined location method is proposed. The method firstly uses the cross locating method to quickly approach the radiation source, and then uses the parameter estimation method for precise positioning, and tested with simulation and field experimental data. The results show that the accuracy of this combined location method is improved by 49.6% compared with the cross locating method; and the time consumption is reduced by 71.1% compared with the parameter estimation method.
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    Rapid determination of strontium-89 and strontium-90 in liquid effluent of nuclear power plant by liquid scintillation counting method
    FANG Chunming, YANG Fan, GUO Xiaocui
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (3): 243-248.  
    Abstract44)      PDF(pc) (3317KB)(27)       Save
    This paper described analysis and measurement method for strontium-89 and strontium-90 in liquid effluent of nuclear power plant. Strontium-89 and strontium-90 in liquid effluent are enriched by cation exchange resin, separated by strontium resin, and measured by low background scintillation spectrometer. The relevant measurement conditions are analyzed and studied. This method simplifies the treatment process of liquid effluent of nuclear power plant. The established method can detect multiple nuclides at the same time, and can fully meet the analysis requirements of strontium-89 and strontium-90 in liquid effluent of nuclear power plant.
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    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (1): 0-0.  
    Abstract43)      PDF(pc) (179KB)(60)       Save
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    Summary of the monitoring method and system development status of radioactive gas 37Ar
    KONG Shuying, TUO Fei, YANG Baolu
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (2): 114-121.  
    Abstract42)      PDF(pc) (2711KB)(41)       Save
    37Ar is a characteristic activation product of underground nuclear explosion, and is a verification nuclide of on-site inspection stipulated by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). Therefore, accurate field measurement or laboratory measurement of the collected activity concentration of 37Ar are particularly critical. This paper collects and analyzes the characteristics, sampling and purification technology and 37Ar activity measurement methods, summarizes the advanced device and technology status of field or laboratory measurement in the world, with the aim to provide technical support for 37Ar activity concentration-related monitoring and other application fields.
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    Evaluation of public dose caused by discharge of operating effluent from Unit 1-4 of an operating nuclear power plant in Northeast China (2013-2020)
    LI Yuxin, ZHAGNG Weihua, WANG Zhongjie, TIAN Xianpeng, GUO Haifeng, DING Zhibo, YUE Huiguo, WANG Renke
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (2): 155-165.  
    Abstract42)      PDF(pc) (3138KB)(36)       Save
    This paper introduces the calculation model and method of public doses caused by the discharge of airborne effluents and liquid effluents. Key exposure pathways, key nuclides, collective effective doses within 80 km of the nuclear power plant, and the normalized emissions of effluents in each year were analyzed, and were compared with the relevant standard requirements. The results show that: According to the data analysis and accounting of the Environmental Monitoring and Evaluation Annual Report and the Radiation Dose Impact Evaluation Report of the Nuclear Power Plant, the public dose caused by the radioactive effluent discharge from the nuclear power plant is far below the national standard, the environmental impact report and the annual emission limit approved by the Ministry of Ecology and Environment. The annual effluent discharge has little impact on the surrounding public.
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    Design and testing of source range detector for nuclear measurement system outside reactor core
    XIAO Wei, HU Chan, QIU Shunli, ZHAI Chunrong, DONG Jincheng, GE Mengtuan, ZHOU Yulin, ZENG Le
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (3): 218-224.  
    Abstract42)      PDF(pc) (3718KB)(28)       Save
    A boron lined proportional counter is used to design the source range measurement channel of the ex-core nuclear measurement system. A high sensitivity detector is developed and a set of source rang detection device is designed. The thermal neutron sensitivity on pile test methods are given. The sensitivity, discrimination threshold characteristics, high-voltage plateau characteristics, count rate linearity and measurement range of the detection device are tested and verified. The test results show that the detector has excellent radiation performance. The thermal neutron sensitivity can reach 22 s-1/(cm-2·s-1), and the high-voltage plateau characteristic plateau length is 150 V, with plateau slope 28.3%/100 V. The pulse counting rate of the detector has a significant linear coincidence with the neutron fluence rate, and the upper limit of the neutron fluence measurement can reach 1×105 cm-2·s-1, which meets the use requirements of the source range channel of the external nuclear measurement system. The source range detector can be widely used in nuclear power plant and marine external nuclear measurement and monitoring systems.
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    Evaluation on implementation of diagnostic standards for common occupational radiation diseases by occupational disease diagnosis
    HE Ling, GAO Yiying, WANG Jie
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2022, 42 (6): 532-539.  
    Abstract41)      PDF(pc) (1066KB)(27)       Save
    An online questionnaire was used to investigate the current status of the implementation of five commonly used diagnostic standards for occupational radiation diseases by occupational diagnostic physicians, in order to analyze the implementation effect of the standards and the ability of diagnostic physicians to implement the standards. The results showed that: (1) A total of 87 occupational disease diagnostic physicians were investigated, and the average working years were 15.4±11.9 years; (2) The mastery rate, training rate and application rate of the standard were 82.8%-88.5%, 73.6%-85.1% and 46%-70.1%, respectively; (3) The proportion of diagnostic physicians in standard training departments was 40%-67.1% in health departments, 0.6%-6.4% in environmental protection departments, 8.7%-51.5% in safety supervision departments, and 2.8%-23.6% in our own organization; (4) In diagnostic institutions, the standard system establishment rate was 51.7%-92%, and the standards funds supporting rate was 25.3%-51.7%; (5) The feasible rate of standards determined by diagnosticians was 88.5%-97.7%; (6) Diagnostic physicians’ recommendations on standard revision mainly focused on dose threshold and dose estimation; (7) Diagnostic physicians suggested that the relevant government departments should strengthen the training of occupational disease diagnostic standards and improve the understanding and implementation of the standard technical provisions. This study will provide technical basis for the evaluation and revision of the implementation effect of the five standards.
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    RADIATION PROTECTION    2022, 42 (6): 0-0.  
    Abstract41)      PDF(pc) (219KB)(42)       Save
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    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (2): 144-144.  
    Abstract41)      PDF(pc) (522KB)(25)       Save
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    Research on temperature drift correction method of seawater radioactivity sensor
    SHI Yan, ZHANG Yingying, WU Bingwei, FENG Xiandong, WANG Yifei, BI Haijie
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (3): 225-234.  
    Abstract41)      PDF(pc) (9407KB)(24)       Save
    The seawater radioactivity sensor developed based on NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal detection method is the main technological means to carry out in situ automatic monitoring of marine radionuclides at home and abroad. Nevertheless, when the seawater radioactivity sensor is continuously operating at sea for a long time, the measured seawater gamma spectrum data will drift due to the influence of ambient temperature. In this paper, the seawater radioactivity sensor measurement experiment is carried out under the condition of environmental temperature gradient change, and the drift law of the gamma spectrum data calculated by the seawater radioactivity sensor which occurs with the environmental temperature change is analyzed. When the ambient temperature is lower than 15 ℃, channel address corresponding to the characteristic energy peak increases with the increase of temperature; on the contrary, when the ambient temperature is higher than 15 ℃, the channel address corresponding to the characteristic energy peak decreases with the increase of temperature. The gamma spectrum peak channel address shift can be expressed as a quadratic function of temperature, and further a correction method of gamma spectrum shift based on ambient temperature change is proposed. It is verified by laboratory experiments on air and water environment that the peak channel address drift of characteristic peak after air environment correction is not more than ±2 channels, and the peak channel address drift after water environment correction is not more than ±3 channels, which meets the requirements of temperature drift correction for continuous measurement of gamma spectrum by the sensor.
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    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (4): 390-392.  
    Abstract39)      PDF(pc) (565KB)(37)       Save
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    Effects of different atmospheric stability classification and diffusion parameter schemes on CALPUFF simulation results and a turbulence fitting scheme
    BAO Xinjie, YANG Zongzhen, TAO Naigui, ZHANG Xiaofeng, WANG Yichuan
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (2): 145-154.  
    Abstract38)      PDF(pc) (5433KB)(23)       Save
    The numerical simulation results of three diffusion parameter schemes in CALPUFF model under different atmospheric stability conditions are verified by tracer tests at a coastal nuclear power plant site. The results show that the simulation effect of the measured turbulence scheme is less affected by the classification results of atmospheric stability, and the comprehensive evaluation result is the best. Under the condition that the classification results of atmospheric stability simulated by the model are consistent with those based on the measured data of the weather tower. And the simulation results of the micrometeorological scheme are slightly worse than that of the measured turbulence scheme, and are better than that of the PG scheme. Under the adverse weather conditions that the EIA focuses, the simulated results of the micrometeorological or PG scenarios may differ from the actual concentration distribution results. In order to solve the problem that it is difficult to obtain long-term measured turbulence data, the measured data of meteorological tower used for classification of atmospheric stability and the turbulence observation data of corresponding period were fitted, and the standard deviation equation of turbulence pulsation under various atmospheric stability conditions was constructed. The statistical results show that the fitting turbulence scheme combined with the atmospheric stability index has a good simulation effect, which has a certain practical significance for improving the atmospheric diffusion simulation effect for nuclear power plants.
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    Electromagnetic exposure safety assessment of electrostatic discharge through numerical simulation
    SONG Yanxia
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (4): 289-299.  
    Abstract38)      PDF(pc) (9240KB)(23)       Save
    Based on the numerical calculation method on electromagnetic dosimetry and according to the typical electrostatic discharge (ESD) current waveform specified by IEC (International Electro technical Commission), the first harmonic component with the strongest energy and the full harmonic components in the frequency domain after Fourier transform were used as electromagnetic radiation sources, the electromagnetic effect of human biological tissue when the human body is located at different positions of the exposure source is simulated and analyzed, and the numerical simulation results were compared with those recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The results showed that the electric field intensity (E), magnetic field intensity (H) and specific absorptivity (SAR) decreased with the distance from the exposure source, and the distribution of electric field lines became more uniform with the increasing distance; The electric field intensity attenuates rapidly after entering the head, and the brain has a certain shielding effect on the space electromagnetic field; The SAR peak values and distributions in coronal and sagittal planes are almost the same at different positions in the human head, and the SAR peak values in sagittal and coronal planes are 15.7 times of those in axial planes; The peak of head SAR at different positions appeared at the skull, and the SAR in the brain was the smallest and distributed symmetrically with respect to x and y; Under the condition of multi frequency exposure, the whole-body SAR value of the exposure source located at 1m (position A) on the right side of the human body exceeded the basic limit of ICNIRP, while the whole-body SAR value of the exposure source located at 5 m (position B) on the right side of the human body and beyond did not exceeded the basic limit of ICNIRP. The human body should be located 5 m away from the exposure source to reduce the exposure risk. The research results can provide a numerical reference for human ESD electromagnetic exposure protection, and can provide a theoretical basis for the formulation of ESD electromagnetic exposure related standards.
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