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    Design optimization and effect analysis for radiation protection in Haiyang nuclear power plant
    GOU Quanlu, WANG Caixia, ZHANG Jiannian, WAN Dengwei, YU Xiaodong, WANG Yilin
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (6): 620-627.  
    Abstract111)      PDF(pc) (2026KB)(37)       Save
    Both units of Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant(NPP)Phase I have been equipped with AP1000 technology designed by Westinghouse of the United States. The radiation protection design was based on the priority of using advanced and mature technology. In order to reduce the radiation level of reactor unit and the occupational exposure dose to the staff, a lot of optimization design technology have been used: such as adopting the passive safety system to reduce the amount of equipment; integrated top head design of reactor pressure vessel; the maintenance-free main shield pump; steam generator primary circuit water chamber which adopted electrolytic polishing technology; spent fuel transport channel using of blocking water sac to improve equipment reliability; in order to reduce the maintenance workload. The main optimization measures adopted in the radiation protection design and the protection effect obtained by these measures were introduced, through comparison and analysis with typical data of domestic operating nuclear power plants. These measures can be used for reference for the optimization of radiation protection design in subsequent Phases of Haiyang NPP project, as well as for other peers.
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    Study on the status of I-129 monitoring technology for gaseous effluent in reprocessing plant
    LIN Yibo, LUO Zhiping, PANG Hongchao, WANG Chuangao, CHEN Ran
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (5): 422-430.  
    Abstract106)      PDF(pc) (1832KB)(83)       Save
    A large amount of radioactive gas is generated during the reprocessing process in spent fuel reprocessing plants. The main forms of I-129 in the gaseous effluent of the reprocessing plants were investigated, and the current monitoring methods for radioactive iodine were summarized. By comparing their advantages and disadvantages, the online monitoring methods suitable for I-129 in the gaseous effluent of reprocessing plants were analyzed. And it is feasible to establish online monitoring technology for I-129 in the gaseous effluent in reprocessing plants. An ICP-MS based online monitoring technology for I-129 in the gaseous effluent in reprocessing plants could be established for experiemnt purpose, with the aim to monitoring the gaseous iodine molecules in the gaseous effluent in reprocessing plants, thereby achieving real-time monitoring of I-129 in the gaseous effluent in reprocessing plants.
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    Expert consensus on clinical diagnosis and treatment techniques for local radiation injuries caused by external Iridium-192 source irradiation
    Nuclear and Radiation Emergency Medicine Branch of the Chinese Nuclear Society, Nuclear and Radiation Emergency Branch of China Society of Radiation Protection Safety, Radiological Health Professional Committee of Chinese Preventive Medicine Association, Environmental Protection and Waste Management Committee of Science and Technology Commission of China National Nuclear Corporation
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (5): 393-411.  
    Abstract99)      PDF(pc) (1345KB)(65)       Save
    Focusing on the international frontier of advanced radiation diagnosis and treatment research, and combining the practical experience of more than 30 years of basic research and clinical treatment of radiation injuries in China and especially in the General Hospital of Nuclear Industry, we established a precise assessment technology system for local radiation injuries caused by external Iridium-192 source irradiation from multiple dimensions. The treatment strategy and optimal treatment and efficacy evaluation plan for local radiation injuries were established and validated in the whole process of treatment of local radiation injuries. In this way, the precise assessment, standardized treatment, prognosis, rehabilitation management and long-term medical follow-up of nuclear and radiation injuries can be realized. The cure rate of local radiation injuries can be improved, and the disability rate can be reduced. Theoretical guidance and technical support can be provided for the treatment of local radiation injuries.
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    Monte Carlo simulations of radiation dose of astronauts caused by space radiation particles
    SHEN Jiangyan, YAN Congchong
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (S1): 8-13.  
    Abstract98)      PDF(pc) (3533KB)(54)       Save
    Space radiation is one of the main risks for astronauts during space station missions. Because of the complex composition of space radiation particles and the wide range of energy, the study of space radiation particle spectrum can better assist the effect study of space radiation particle on astronauts. Also, the astronaut safety protection mechanism will be further improved. The spatial radiation particle spectrum simulated by Shandong Institute of Advanced Technology and the voxel model of ICRP adult male were used, and an equal-scale model of the “Tianhe” core module was constructed based on the Monte Carto program Geant4.The space radiation dose to astronauts during long-term space station mission in Low Earth Orbit(LEO) was estimated based on the particle flux data. The results show that the skin dose rate reaches 2.22 mGy·d-1 after 163 days in the core module of the space station, and the high energy heavy ions, although only 0.5% in the space radiation particle spectrum, contribute 14.6% of the space radiation dose. This study has some reference significance for astronaut risk assessment and biological effects of high energy heavy ion radiation.
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    Research progress of testing methods for X-ray shielding performance of low-lead/lead-free materials
    ZHANG Xuan, LI Dehong, ZHANG Xiaole, HAO Guanghui, CAO Lei, ZHANG Jian, HUANG Jianwei, GUO Bin, ZHAO Rui, LI Mengfei
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (5): 412-421.  
    Abstract95)      PDF(pc) (4444KB)(65)       Save
    To scientifically and rationally evaluate the protective effect of low-lead/lead-free materials, the shielding performance of such materials needs to be accurately tested. Through literature research, combined with the current relevant standards, this paper introduces shielding performance testing of protective materials from three aspects of X-ray radiation quality, testing equipment and testing methods. According to the different test geometry, there are five detection methods as follows: under the condition of narrow beam, the detector is far away from the material to be tested, so it can not detect the secondary radiation generated by the material to be tested, so it is not suitable for the detection of low-lead/lead-free materials. Under the condition of broad beam, the solid angle of the radiation beam increases and the detector is close to the tested material, which is conducive to the detection of low-lead/lead-free materials, but there are certain requirements for the area of the tested material and the selection of the detector. The inverse broad beam condition is detected by narrow beam and flat ionization chamber, but there is a small field problem. The improved inverse broad beam condition uses IB-AT and IB-AP configurations to reduce the difference of energy spectrum, but the implementation is cumbersome. The improved broad beam can reduce the influence of the small field problem, but there is still the influence of the energy spectrum difference on the results. In practice, the appropriate test method can be selected according to conditions and specific protection needs.
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    Study on air kerma measurement and conversion coefficient from air kerma to dose equivalent for 250-500 kV X-ray narrow spectrum
    QU Bingbing, ZHAO Rui, WU Jinjie, LU Pingzhou, LI Mengyu, LI Ting, MA Yingjie
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2024, 44 (1): 19-26.  
    Abstract84)      PDF(pc) (2555KB)(90)       Save
    Accurate measurement of radiation dosimeter is an important guarantee for conducting radiation protection. According to the operational quantities in ICRU report, it is necessary to verify or calibrate it in the reference radiation field. Referring to the ISO 4037-1:2019, the narrow spectrum X-ray reference radiation quality in (250-500) kV was established, and the uniformity of the radiation field and the spectrum were studied. The spectrum and half value layer parameters of radiation quality were obtained by Monte Carlo simulation and experimental measurement, and were compared with the ISO recommended values. These results meet the requirements of the relevant specification, indicating that the new radiation quality is accurate and reliable. The A5 ionization chamber is used to measure the air kerma in the new radiation field. According to the conversion coefficient of the air kerma to dose equivalent calculated by the X-ray energy spectrum, the conversion of the air kerma to the ambient dose equivalent and the individual dose equivalent is realized, which provides the measurement conditions for the energy response evaluation of various radiation dose meters in the high-energy region, and ensures the accuracy and reliability of the measurement value.
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    Investigation on KAP of radiation protection among medical staff in nuclear medicine department and analysis of influencing factors
    WANG Mengting, YANG Suyun, SHI Bingzi
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (5): 501-509.  
    Abstract83)      PDF(pc) (1082KB)(46)       Save
    Objective: To investigate knowledge, attitude and practice of radiation protection among medical staff in nuclear medicine department and to analyze the influencing factors, so as to provide the basis for standardizing the radiation protcetion behavior of medical staff and enriching the training content of radiation protection. Methods: A self-designed questionnaire on KAP of radiation protection was used to investigate the medical staff in nuclear medicine department, and multiple linear regression was used to analyze the factors affecting KAP of radiation protection. Results: A total of 123 valid questionnaires were collected, and the effective recovery rate was 94.62%. The total score of the radiation protection KAP questionnaire for medical staff in nuclear medicine department is 76.92; the knowledge score is 57.69; the attitude score is 95.24; and the behavior score is 83.33. The results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that if medical staff had children and whether they regularly attended radiation protection training were the influencing factors of radiation protection KAP score (P<0.05). Conclusions: Medical staff in nuclear medicine department have a good level of KAP about radiation protection, and their attitude and behavior are positive, but their knowledge of radiation protection is insufficient. Relevant organizations and agencies should regularly organize radiation protection training and education, in order to improve medical staff's knowledge level of radiation protection, and form positive attitudes and behaviors.
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    Research on the influence of 56Fe evaluation cross section of different databases on shielding calculation
    CHI Xiaomiao, HAN Yi, CHEN Faguo, MA Xiangyu, SHEN Huaya
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (S1): 1-7.  
    Abstract83)      PDF(pc) (5811KB)(40)       Save
    56Fe evaluation cross sections are still being updated at home and abroad. In order to evaluate the applicability and accuracy of 56Fe cross sections in various evaluation libraries and different versions of the same evaluation library in shielding calculation, this paper selects the FE DIA100 R150 benchmark with the evaluation the cross-section data quality of 56Fe in different evaluation libraries. And based on the CENDL-3.2 evaluation library, the sensitivity analysis of 56Fe stable isotopes was carried out, and the influence of key reaction channel sections of 56Fe on shielding calculation was studied. Some main conclusions are drawn as follows. 1) Due to the lack of accuracy of the elastic scattering cross section and inelastic scattering cross section of 56Fe, there are large differences between the calculated values of various evaluation libraries and the experimental measurements in the energy regions of 1.20-1.70 MeV and 10.00-17.00 MeV. 2) The (n, n) and (n, n′)d reaction cross-sections in 56Fe are the most sensitive factors to the influence of shielding calculations. 3) In CENDL-3.2, the cross section value of 56Fe(n, n) is higher than the real value in the energy region of 0.01-0.10 MeV.
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    An ignored radiation exposure source term in nuclear power plants
    GU Jingzhi
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (5): 438-442.  
    Abstract81)      PDF(pc) (967KB)(60)       Save
    Noble gas is a kind of radioactive material produced in nuclear fission processes of a nuclear power unit. Nevertheless such radiation source term and its exposure risk to workers of nuclear power plants during specific conditions has been neglected, due to its physical form and charachteristics as well as the difficulties of exposure dose measurement technology. This paper calls for attention to the professional radiation staffs of nuclear power plants to make further efforts to identify those specific radiation risks existed inside the nuclear power plant and then to control and reduce the source terms and their exposure risks.
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    Research progress on radon migration and coverage control
    ZHAO Yong, ZHANG Guifeng
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2024, 44 (1): 1-9.  
    Abstract81)      PDF(pc) (962KB)(99)       Save
    With the development of nuclear power, the demand for natural uranium has increased. It has become evident that large volume accumulation of tailing on the ground may cause radon pollution. Therefore it is of great significance on how to effectively reduce the amount of radon exhalation from uranium tailing. Generally, the covering method after ground accumulation is used to reduce the ground environmental hazards caused by uranium tailing. The process of radon migration mainly undergoes two stages of migration in the covered material and the covering material. As a result, studying radon migration law has become a key component in solving the problem. In this paper, foreign and domestic scholars' studies on the factors influencing radon exhalation, radon migration theory, coverage control method and effect, and coverage parameters are summarized and reviewed. The following results are obtained: At present, the exhalation mechanism and influencing factors of radon are presented as comprehensive analysis. But there is a need for further research on the multi-factor coupling mechanism and action process during radon exhalation. Natural and artificially synthesized materials are selected as covering materials, the Natural materials are currently commonly used, in which the addition of bentonite in red soil, sandy sub-clay, and red soil are the good material for radon reduction. However, more research is needed to find covering materials that are effective in controlling radon and have minimal impact on the ecological environment. This paper provides ideas for more effectively eliminating radon pollution from uranium tailing in the future.
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    Expert consensus on occupational health surveillance of radiation workers
    Nuclear Emergency Medicine Branch of the Chinese Nuclear Society; Chinese Society of Radiological Medicine and Protection, Chinese Medical Association; Radiological Health Professional Committee of Chinese Preventive Medicine Association; Nuclear and Radiation Emergency Response Branch of the Chinese Society of Radiation Protection
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2024, 44 (2): 101-109.  
    Abstract81)      PDF(pc) (979KB)(122)       Save
    This paper describes the expert consensus on occupational health surveillance of radiation workers from various perspectives, including the changes in the understanding of health surveillance by international organizations, the establishment of relevant regulations and technical standards for occupational health surveillance of radiation workers in China, the establishment of examination items and period, the indications of inability to engage in radiological work, the definition of suspected radiological injuries, as well as the understanding of the standardization of medical examination methods, assessment of suitability, handling of special cases, and the management of health surveillance files. The Chinese Expert Consensus on Occupational Health Surveillance of Radiation Workers and the future outlook of the program are presented, aiming to provide guidance for the practice of radiation workers’ health surveillance in China.
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    Monitoring and research of long pulse radiation in EAST fusion device
    LI Chengxun, HUO Zhipeng, ZHONG Guoqiang, HU Liqun
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (5): 451-459.  
    Abstract78)      PDF(pc) (4608KB)(47)       Save
    EAST(Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) conducts plasma fusion by deuterium and deuterium, which releases large amounts of neutrons and secondary gamma rays. In order to accurately understand the spatial distribution of radiation products in the EAST fusion device under the condition of high parameter long pulse plasma discharge, the radiation on-line monitoring system is used to realize the effective monitoring of neutron and γ rays. According to protection requirements, 13 key monitoring areas are arranged inside and outside the EAST installation hall. In terms of monitoring system hardware, radiation neutrons and γ rays are detected by ionization chamber based on BF3 proportional counter tube and argon respectively, and monitoring data are transmitted to acquisition machine through twisted pair and Ethernet hybrid networking mode. The monitoring system software adopts the control acquisition software based on LabVIEW to collect and store the real-time dose rate and cumulative dose of neutron and gamma rays. The monitoring results show that the maximum radiation dose rate in the hall of the EAST fusion device rapidly increases by more than 3 orders of magnitude under the long pulse and high parameter plasma operation condition, and then drops to the radiation background level soon after the discharge. The radiation dose rate outside the hall is always kept close to the radiation background level due to the protective effect of the shielding wall. The online radiation monitoring system can not only effectively obtain radioactive data, but also provide data support for radiation safety protection management to ensure the safe development and utilization of fusion energy and personnel safety.
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    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (S1): 0-0.  
    Abstract77)      PDF(pc) (201KB)(65)       Save
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    Suggestions on standardizing collective dose data management of nuclear power plants in China
    WANG Liang, HUANG Qianqian, YE Yuanlv, LIU Zhiyuan, CHEN Lu, LIU Fudong
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (S1): 39-43.  
    Abstract76)      PDF(pc) (1031KB)(65)       Save
    At present, the in-service nuclear power plants in China are relatively insufficient in dose data collection, statistics, standardized classification management, information publicity and so on. There is a low degree of standardization and normalization of dose data between different reactors in the same nuclear power base or even between different refueling cycles of the same unit, which leads to poor data comparability and is not conducive to achieving the requirements of radiation safety optimization. Based on the practice of domestic and foreign nuclear power plant dose data management, the deficiencies and problems of collective dose data management in Chinese nuclear power plants have been analyzed, and a number of suggestions were put forward.
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    A study of 7Be, 210Pb and 210Po in the atmosphere of Tianjin and the committed effective dose from 2018 to 2020
    CUI Ming, YU Chuan, GAO Jianzheng
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (5): 495-500.  
    Abstract75)      PDF(pc) (1156KB)(88)       Save
    In order to study the activity concentration and to estimate the committed effective dose through inhalation of 7Be, 210Pb and 210Po in the atmospheric aerosols of Tianjin, TSP samples from 2018 to 2020 were analyzed. Activity concentrations of 7Be,210Pb and 210Po in TSP were in the range of 0.74-15.0 mBq/m3, 0.21-2.5 μBq/m3 and 0.17-0.74 μBq/m3, respectively. The activity concentrations of three radionuclides were at highest in winter. This is the combined effect of the airflow from high latitudes and the increased pollution emission in winter season in Tianjin. The total committed effective dose caused by 7Be, 210Pb and 210Po was in the range of 6.28-40.1 μSv/a, which was far lower than the dose limits for public exposure and not enough to threaten human health.
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    An investigation of the authorized release limits of radioactive effluent from nuclear power plant
    HUANG Yanjun, SHANGGUAN Zhihong, ZUO Weiwei
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (5): 431-437.  
    Abstract71)      PDF(pc) (3557KB)(69)       Save
    Emission control plays a key role in environmental radiation protection and effluent management for the operator of nuclear power plants (NPPs) and the authorities. In this paper, the effluent emission levels of pressurized water reactor (PWR) NPPs at home and abroad, the contain rate of the emission control value stipulated in GB 6249—2011 were investigated for the reported release amount, and the regulated values were compared with that in France. It was shown that, except for 3H and 14C in the effluent, the existing regulatedemission limits could basically contain the statistical emissions of foreign nuclear power plants with a much large controllable margin. Under the current effluent emission management level, a suitable, and much controllable margin could be used for optimization for the limits except for 3H and 14C.
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    Radiation risk control of radiograph flaw detection by using multiple radioactive source of in the reactor building during the overhaul of the HPR1000 unit
    XU Zhuoqun, JIANG Zhiyuan, TIAN Qiuxin
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (S1): 44-51.  
    Abstract70)      PDF(pc) (14025KB)(35)       Save
    Radiograph flaw detection is one of the non-destructive testing methods widely used in nuclear power plants. Due to the high activity of the radioactive source to be used, if the inspection operation or management is improper, it may lead to radiation incidents or radiation accidents. This paper, based on HPR1000 unit design layout and first overhaul practice, upholds the reactor building multiple radioactive source of radiograph flaw detection risk control idea, innovatively designed a “three-step” code, combined with the judgment logic of independent research and development, in order to ensure the safe and efficient implementation of multiple radioactive source of radiograph flaw detection in the reactor building during the overhaul of HPR1000 unit. The results could provide support to improve the domestic and foreign control system in the field of radiation protection, and provide experience feedback for the same type of units at home and abroad.
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    Expert consensus on radiation biodosimetry by semi-automatic analysis of dicentric chromosome
    Nuclear Emergency Medicine Branch of Chinese Nuclear Society, Chinese Society of Radiological Medicine and Protection of Chinese Medical Association, Radiological Health Professional Committee of Chinese Preventive Medicine Association, Nuclear and Radiation Emergency Response Branch of China Society of Radiation Protection
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2024, 44 (3): 199-209.  
    Abstract69)      PDF(pc) (2111KB)(45)       Save
    Over the past ten years, semi-automatic analysis of dicentric chromosome (dic) has been widely used for estimating radiation biological dose internationally due to its technical maturity. However, there are still no relevant technical specifications and standards in China, although both technical reports published by the IAEA and technical standards published by the International Organization for Standardization have recommended this method for dose estimation. The present technical consensus of biological dose estimation was established from the aspects of the dic semi-automatic analysis principle, main technical content, factor analysis, and application examples, based on more than 30 years of practical experience for dic manual and semi-automatic analysis at home and abroad. Compared with the existing national standard GB/T 28236, it could significantly improve the efficiency of biological dose estimation, and could also reduce the requirements for technical proficiency of professionals, thus could be better promoted and applied. Similar to manual analysis, dic semi-automatic analysis could be used to estimate and reconstruct the exposed dose under different radiation exposure scenarios including acute uniform, local, extensional irradiation, and delayed sampling. Considering the inefficiency of current domestic dose estimation which cannot meet the needs of clinical classification and diagnosis for large-scale nuclear and radiation accidents that have a large number of exposed people, the promotion and application of dic semi-automatic analysis might solve these bottleneck problems and provide technical support for further development of relevant national standard.
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    Inter-comparison results of 137Cs and 90Sr in seawater among analytical laboratories
    LIN Jing, HUANG Dekun, NI Jialin, JI Jianda, ZHONG Qiangqiang, ZHANG Jinzhao, YU Tao
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (5): 485-489.  
    Abstract67)      PDF(pc) (1803KB)(25)       Save
    Inter-comparison results among analytical laboratories for the measurements of 137Cs and 90Sr in seawater in 2020 is described in this paper. The spiked seawater samples were distributed to 13 participating laboratories, and their analytical results were compared to the reference values. The relative deviation of 137Cs between measured values and reference value was -2.99% to 5.97%. The results had passed all criteria and were assigned “Accepted” status as a final score. In the case of 90Sr, one measured result did not pass the accuracy test and correctness test, so it was considered as “Not Accepted”. All other results were accepted. The analytical laboratories participating in this inter-comparison have good overall comparison results.
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    The weakly penetrating radiation dose measurement of surface of uranium fuel element surface and operator
    CHEN Bin, WEI Yingjing, AN Shifeng, WANG Yuqing
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (5): 473-477.  
    Abstract67)      PDF(pc) (1273KB)(40)       Save
    Along with β radiation of 238U and 235U dacay in uranium fuel. Existing, weakly penetrating radiation risk ofto operator of uranium fuel element exists. TIn this article,measuring the β spectrum was measured with β spectrometer and measuring the β dose rate was measured with directional dose equivalent meter,T, while the maximum energy of beta ray emitted from uranium fuel element is 2.3 MeV. The measurement results show that the $\dot{H}$'(0.07) is 1.38 mSv/h, and the $\dot{H}$'(0.07)/$\dot{H}$*(10) is 36. The experimental results show that the protective clothing worn by the uranium fuel element operators has almost no protective effect on high-energy β rays, and the Hp(0.07)/Hp(10) is 130. AccordingBased on the measurement results of uranium fuel element and operator, it is suggested monitoring Hp(0.07) and Hp(3) for the operator of uranium fuel element. At the same time,, the weakly penetrating radiation protectiveon methods were provided.
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    A performance study of a new personal neutron dosimeter based on SSNTD
    JIAO Yan, CAO Qinjian, WEI Xiaofeng, XU Yuan, ZHAO Yuan, LIU Liye
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2024, 44 (1): 33-41.  
    Abstract66)      PDF(pc) (3552KB)(40)       Save
    As a passive personal neutron dosimeter, CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector is convenient, cheap, insensitive to gamma and beta rays and has strong anti-interference ability, and better response to fast neutrons. A new personal neutron dosimeter has been developed combining with two measurement methods of CR-39 and albedo thermoluminescence dosimeter. Performance experiments are carried out on the CR-39 detector according to the international standard ISO 21909-1. The results show that the CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector has good repeatability, batch homogeneity, dose linearity, stability, response of reference radiation field and no photon-sensitivity. The detection threshold and uncertainty of dose measurement are presented in this paper. It provides an experimental data reference for the introduction of international standard.
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    Development of directional dose equivalent rate meter for emergency radiation protection
    WEI Yingjing, WU Zhifang, LIU Liye, LI Yin, WEI Shiliang, YAN Jun
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (5): 467-472.  
    Abstract65)      PDF(pc) (3843KB)(41)       Save
    In order to accurately measure the H'·(0.07) under emergency conditions, a directional dose equivalent rate meter for emergency radiation protection is developed. The detector conta: 2 layers 3 μm alumini polyester film, a diameter of 35 mm Plastic scintillators with thickness of 50 μm, plexiglass with a thickness of 5 mm, and SiPM. They were used as the front window, scintillator, photoconductive and photoelectric converter of the detector in turn. According to GB/T 4835.2—2013, the radiation characteristics of the developed directional dose equivalent rate meter for emergency radiation protection are as follows: the relative intrinsic error is -14% to +20% in the dose rate range of 70 μSv/h-1.7 Sv/h; With the incident angle from 0 to ±60°, and the β ray average energy of 60 keV-800 keV, the variation of radiation energy and incident angle is in the range of -16% to +48%; in the radiation field of 0.23 mSv/h, the statistical fluctuation of the measurement results is 8.4%. The test results show that the radiation characteristics of the directional dose equivalent rate meter for emergency radiation protection meet the requirements of GB/T 4835.2—2013, and can be used for directional dose equivalent rate monitoring in places with high weak penetrating radiation and emergency conditions.
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    Review of radiation epidemiology, dosimetry and radiobiology in areas with high natural background radiation areas of the world
    XUE Huiyuan, GAO Jin, TU Yu
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (S1): 129-138.  
    Abstract65)      PDF(pc) (1168KB)(28)       Save
    Radiation levels therefore vary from one region of the world to another. Naturally occurred high background radiation areas, due to the uniqueness of their radiation doses and the populations that inhabit, has always been attracting the attention of researchers from different countries. Early epidemiological studies did not show an increasing trend in cancer incidence in high natural background radiation areas, raising some controversy about the validity of the linear non-threshold hypothesis. This paper presents and discusses the main results of radioactivity level measurements, radiobiological and radiation epidemiological studies conducted in some of the major areas with high natural background radiation areas of the world, such as China, Brazil, India and Iran. It is hoped that research interest will be aroused in the topical issues of dosimetry, epidemiology and radiobiology related to the high natural background radiation areas of the world. Recommendations to address the problems faced at this stage, in order to achieve better research related to high natural background radiation areas. At the same time, the inhabitants of high natural background radiation areas are protected from possible radiation exposure.
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    2019-2020 radon concentration measurement and dose estimation in some non-uranium mines in China
    WU Yunyun, SONG Yanchao, ZHANG Qingzhao, CUI Hongxing, HOU Changsong
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (S1): 61-66.  
    Abstract65)      PDF(pc) (1259KB)(116)       Save
    In 2019-2020,75 non-uranium mines in 11 provinces (autonomous regions) were selected and investigated. Solid State Nuclear Track Detector was used to measure the radon concentration in mines. The arithmetic mean (AM) of radon concentration in metal mines was (1 334 ±3 301)Bq/m3, the geometric mean (GM) of them was (317± 4.6) Bq/m3, ranging from 22 to 28 314 Bq/m3(N = 416). The AM and GM in non-metal mines was (162±151) Bq/m3 and (125±2) Bq/m3, respectively, with range of 22-971 Bq/m3 (N=113). There was 31.8% of the 529 underground measuring points with radon concentration exceeding 300 Bq/m3, 19.8% of measuring points exceeding 1 000 Bq/m3 and 9.3% exceeding 2 700 Bq/m3. There were 21 metal mines with radon concentration exceeding 1 000 Bq/m3, accounting for 28% of the total surveyed mines. The average annual effective dose of metal miners was 8.38 mSv, and that of non-metal miners was 1.01 mSv. It can be seen that the problem of high radon concentration in metal mines is very prominent. It is suggested that the protection of ventilation engineering should be strengthened in metal mines, and the monitoring of radon in the workplace and individual dose of radon in miners should be implemented. Non-uranium mines should be managed by classification of radon.
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    RADIATION PROTECTION    2024, 44 (1): 0-0.  
    Abstract65)      PDF(pc) (190KB)(67)       Save
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    Study on standard system for containment enclosures
    LIU Fugui, LIU Lipo, DONG Fangfang, JIN Liqiang, PAN Jianjun, LI Xiaozhen, GUO Jianxin
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2024, 44 (1): 85-92.  
    Abstract64)      PDF(pc) (2044KB)(49)       Save
    Containment enclosures are specialized facilities that meet specific requirements of seal and radiation protection. This paper comprehensively sorts out the current status of containment enclosure standards in China. This paper also analyzes the standard requirements of containment enclosures in terms of design, manufacture, installation & commissioning, operation & maintenance as well as decommissioning. Finally this paper establishes the structure diagram and gives standard specifications for containment enclosures, which lays a foundation for guiding the application and implementation of containment enclosures standards and the standards research and development work urgently needed in the next step.
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    Analysis on the interference of carbon-14 on tritium monitoring in gaseous effluent
    BAO Li, YANG Youkun, LIAN Bing, GUO Chen, MA Xuyuan, YANG Hailan
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (S1): 52-55.  
    Abstract63)      PDF(pc) (2581KB)(35)       Save
    Tritium is an important radionuclide in gaseous emissions from nuclear facilities. As a low-energy pure β radionuclide, tritium is mostly monitored by cumulative sampling and laboratory analysis. After tritium is sampled in airborne effluent and measured without purification, there may be interference from other radionuclides. The interference of carbon-14 in airborne effluent on tritium measurement is quantitatively analyzed, which provides reference for accurate and quantitative monitoring of tritium in airborne effluent. According to the sampling characteristics of tritium and carbon-14, the interference in the sampling stage is determined, and the mono-nuclear and tritium-carbon double-labeled samples are prepared and measured to determine the interference effect of carbon-14 on tritium measurement stage. In the sampling stage, the influence of carbon-14 on tritium varies with the temperature, and the solubility of CO2 in tritium capture solution is 0.70 g at 10 ℃. In the measurement stage, the influence of carbon-14 on tritium will vary according to the design and working principle of liquid scintillation spectrometer. For example, if Quantulus1220 ultra-low level liquid scintillation spectrometer is used, the counting contribution of carbon-14 can not be ignored in tritium measurement mode; If LSA2000A liquid scintillation spectrometer is used, the counting contribution of carbon-14 can be ignored in tritium measurement mode.
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    Research on accounting boundary and method of greenhouse gas emission of nuclear power plants life cycle
    WU Feifei, KANG Jing, WANG Yan, LIAN Bing, YANG Jie, YUE Qi
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2024, 44 (1): 10-18.  
    Abstract63)      PDF(pc) (2653KB)(61)       Save
    Nuclear energy is an important source of low-carbon electricity, which is conducive to achieving the “dual carbon” goal. At the national level, a unified and standardized accounting method for greenhouse gas emissions by nuclear power industry has not been established. Relevant research on the accounting boundary and method are essential. Based on critical issues of greenhouse gas emissions accounting, we systematically analyzed the accounting boundary and methods of greenhouse gas emissions from nuclear power life cycle at home and abroad. In addition, we compared the greenhouse gas accounting standards and guidelines for enterprises in key industries. The accounting research framework was proposed for greenhouse gas emissions during the nuclear power life cycle. The future research prospects are proposed from three aspects, which include the establishment of a greenhouse gas emission accounting system, research on emission influencing factors and case studies at the decommissioning stage. The proposed research can provide a reference for establishing a unified and standardized statistical accounting system for greenhouse gas in the nuclear power industry in China.
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    Investigation and analysis of natural radionuclides content in coal used for power generation in China
    WANG Shaolin, CHEN Ling, BAI Xiangfei, TUO Fei, CHEN Faguo, CAO Zhonggang
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (5): 478-484.  
    Abstract62)      PDF(pc) (1041KB)(40)       Save
    Based on the analysis of the data obtained from coal mines and related literature, it is found that in 2013, the natural radionuclide content of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 210Po, and 210Pb for coal samples is 29.2±2.9 Bq/kg, 25.2±2.1 Bq/kg, 26.9±0.1 Bq/kg, 64.0±0.6 Bq/kg, 20.7±0.2 Bq/kg and 24.6±0.3 Bq/kg respectively based on weighted average of annual production; while the natural radionuclides content for coal samples is 33.9±9.7 Bq/kg, 30.9±7.9 Bq/kg, 28.5±4.2 Bq/kg, 79.7±20.4 Bq/kg, 26.8±4.3 Bq/kg and 33.9±7.7 Bq/kg respectively based on the weighted average of coal mine scale. The results of this survey can provide basic data for a comprehensive evaluation of the radioactive impact of Chinese coal power industry chain on the natural radioactive level of coal power generation.
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    Review and analysis of radiation accidents in China from 2016 to 2020
    GONG Yu, DANG Lei, LI Xiaoding, BAI Gang, QU Yunhuan, QI Yuan
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (6): 665-670.  
    Abstract62)      PDF(pc) (1485KB)(78)       Save
    In order to draw lessons from the radiation accidents and to improve radiation safety level, the author summarizes and sorts out the radiation accidents that occurred in China from 2016 to 2020. The author also analyzes the types, levels and consequences of the accidents on the basis of the final evaluation of the 13th Five Year Plan for Nuclear Safety and Radioactive Pollution Prevention and Control and the 2025 Long-term Goals carried out by the Ministry of Ecology and Environment. The issues caused by radiation accidents are discussed. Suggestions are put forward, such as optimizing radiation safety supervision, cultivating nuclear safety culture, establishing radiation safety evaluation indicators, and improving the compensation mechanism for radiation accident damage.
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    Development of a prototype instrument for α-surface contamination measurement based on air Radioluminescence
    JIN Chenghe, ZHAO Yuan, WANG Yu, CAO Qinjian, XIONG Wanchun, HUANG Mingxiao, LIU Liye, LI Yan, DONG Jiajie, XIA Sanqiang
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (6): 549-555.  
    Abstract60)      PDF(pc) (4466KB)(40)       Save
    Optical detection method of α surface contamination based on air Radioluminescence was one of the active area of research since its first demonstration at the beginning of this century. Compared to other kinds of α surface contamination measurement methods, the optical detection method of α surface contamination has the following advantages: it can realize non-contact α surface contamination measurement, it can effectively measure non-flat surface α contamination, and finally it can effectively reduce the risk of surface contamination. But on the other hand, affected by low emission yield of air Radioluminescence from α particle energy deposition, the detection limit of optical detection method of α surface contamination is too high compared with other kinds of α surface contamination methods. In this paper we presented a prototype instrument for measurement of α surface contamination. The instrument is based on optical detection of air Radioluminescence from α radiation, and work in telescope scanning mode. Primary performance testing results show that, the sensitivity of the prototype instrument is 2.63 s-1/kBq, and the MDA is 1.0 kBq at 1 m distance from object lens and 10 s measurement time. Field experiment shows that the prototype instrument can also accurately measure space distribution of α surface contamination.
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    Airborne radioactive concentration calculation and monitoring threshold value analysis of HPR1000 nuclear island building
    ZHANG Puzhong, LI Pengfei, FENG Jia, GUO Feng, CHEN Tingting
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (5): 510-514.  
    Abstract60)      PDF(pc) (1003KB)(45)       Save
    Internal exposure through inhalation is one of the main sources of occupational exposures of NPP staff. In order to ensure that personnel exposure meet the requirements of regulations and standards, and be as low as reasonably achievable, airborne radioactive concentration in nuclear island building should be effectively evaluated, monitored and controlled. Based on the calculation model that is widely used to evaluate the airborne radioactive concentration in nuclear island building of NPP in normal operation, the selection process of key parameters in this calculation model is analyzed and the monitoring threshold value of airborne radioactive concentration is calculated in this paper. Suggestions on the selection of key parameters and monitoring threshold value of some airborne radioactive nuclides are finally provided for designing the threshold value of start & stop of the key ventilation system, which is helpful to accurately evaluate, monitor and control the airborne radioactive concentration in nuclear island building of HPR1000, so as to reduce the personnel exposures of NPP staff.
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    Thoughts on regulation of occupational hazards during decommissioning of nuclear facilities
    ZHAN Jingming, XUE Xiangming, YANG Xue, JIANG Xia, WU Xiaoyan
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (S1): 123-128.  
    Abstract60)      PDF(pc) (1037KB)(84)       Save
    By investigating the publications, standards and documents related to the regulation of occupational disease hazards in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, this paper analyzes the types, characteristics and regulatory status of occupational disease hazards in the process of decommissioning of nuclear facilities. It is considered that compared with the normal operation stage and building construction operations, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities has the characteristics of complex radiation source terms, strong radioactivity, uneven distribution of environmental radiation field, prominent dust hazard factors, etc, Its occupational disease hazard regulation measures are similar to construction operations, and it is difficult to regulate occupational disease hazards. Whether it is normal decommissioning or post-accident decommissioning, the health risks faced by workers participating in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities are still a key concern of all countries. In view of this, China should, on the basis of IAEA and domestic decommissioning related operating experience, combined with the characteristics of Nuclear Facility Decommissioning and the current situation of occupational hazard management, put forward prevention and management measures for occupational disease hazards at the decommissioning site of nuclear facilities in China, so as to provide occupational health regulation basis for the growing nuclear facility decommissioning project in China, and promote the healthy and stable development of Nuclear Facility Decommissioning in China.
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    Study on calculation method of dose rate conversion coefficients for water immersion γ external exposure
    GONG Junjun, HUANG Gu, XIA Wenming, CHEN Junjun, ZHANG Yaoyun
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (5): 460-466.  
    Abstract59)      PDF(pc) (2161KB)(37)       Save
    The point source spherical shell model was established by Monte Carlo software, and the effective distances of 30 mono-energy gamma rays with energies in the range of 10 keV-10 MeV in water were quickly calculated. Using three methods of Monte Carlo method F6 card, F4 card combined with FM4 card, *F8 card, the radioactivity concentration-dose rate conversion coefficients of mono-energy gamma-rays and 19 kinds of nuclides for reference person water immersion were calculated. The calculation results show that the relative deviations are within ±10% compared with the FGR 12 report and FGR 15 report of the US Energy Agency using the MIRD model and the ICRP No. 144 using the voxel model. The calculation method can provide a reference for rapid engineering calculation.
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    Research on regional environmental electromagnetic radiation monitoring technology
    WANG Guan, MIAO Erkang, XU Hui, GAO Peng
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2024, 44 (3): 224-232.  
    Abstract59)      PDF(pc) (10710KB)(70)       Save
    With the continuous improvement of information technology in society, complex and changeable electromagnetic wave signals fill the whole space. How to obtain electromagnetic environment monitoring data accurately and effectively has become the key to scientific assessment of regional environmental electromagnetic radiation level. Based on the characteristics of environmental electromagnetic radiation and the existing standards and monitoring practices as well as the work of the international organization, regional environmental electromagnetic radiation monitoring by means of vehicle-borne survey and grid monitoring are discussed. This study not only provides guidance for further improving the existing work of electromagnetic environment monitoring, but also provides a technical reference for improving the regulation efficiency of Chinese electromagnetic environment.
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    The investigation and analysis of the associated radioactivity in a stone coal vanadium extraction enterprise in Gansu Province
    WANG Fujun, WANG Haishan, HAO Jianguo, FANG Peng, MA Hongda, WEI Jinxiang, LIANG Xiaoye, DING Jingjie, LIU Zuoye
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (6): 586-594.  
    Abstract58)      PDF(pc) (1327KB)(40)       Save
    In this paper, the geographical distribution of stone coal associated radioactive mineral resources in Gansu Province was introduced, and the natural radionuclides of stone coal associated minerals and radiation problem was studied in the process of development and utilization. Investigations found that the radioactivity of stone coal associated ore mainly comes from uranium series radionuclides 238U and 226Ra, and the average activity concentration of 238U and 226Ra in some mining areas exceeds 1 Bq/g. Taking a stone coal vanadium extraction enterprise in Gansu Province as an example, the radiation dose rate recieved by the staff and the public is evaluated, and the possibility of radioactive pollution transferring to the environment in the form of waste water, waste gas and radioactive solid waste is analyzed. In view of the existing radioactive pollution problems of stone coal associated radioactive mines, the corresponding suggestions are put forward.
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    Research on irradiation damage effect of radioluminescent materials in radioluminescent nuclear battery
    XU Zhiheng, LIANG Dongdong, WU Yishui, JIANG Tongxin, TANG Xiaobin
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (S1): 71-77.  
    Abstract58)      PDF(pc) (8138KB)(14)       Save
    Radioluminescent nuclear batteries have unique advantages such as compactness, miniaturization, and a wide range of transducer materials to choose from, and are regarded as a typical representative of radiation-particle-conversion nuclear batteries. Fluorescent material is the key link that affects the performance of the battery, and its irradiation stability is a prerequisite to ensure that the battery can serve efficiently for a long period of time. Based on this, ZnS:Cu, a typical material in radioluminescent nuclear batteries, was selected for the study. The changes in luminescence properties of ZnS:Cu radioluminescent materials after irradiation with different types and intensities of ray particles were emphasized. The changes of parameters such as irradiated fluorescence spectra, luminescence intensity, and the influence laws of fluorescent materials before and after irradiation on the electrical output performance of the corresponding nuclear batteries were compared. The irradiation resistance of the ZnS:Cu fluorescent layers was tested and investigated to be relatively good, and the peak light intensity of its emission spectrum was only attenuated by 15.23% and 13.94% compared with that of the unirradiated one after being irradiated by protons at 200 keV and 1.25×1014 ions/cm2 and electrons at 100 keV and 4.32×1016 e/cm2, respectively. It was also found that the irradiation damage effect causes radioluminescent intensity decay, which is intrinsic to the degradation of the electrical performance of the battery. And a certain intensity of gamma irradiation can promote the irradiation luminescence performance of ZnS:Cu fluorescent layer. Among them, the ZnS:Cu fluorescent layer based on acrylic thin film was subjected to gamma irradiation with an irradiation dose of 871.0 kGy, and the maximum output power of the corresponding nuclear battery was enhanced by 24.59%. This work has positively contributed to the research on irradiation stability assessment and performance optimization of fluorescent materials and related devices.
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    Research on key issues of radiation protection design for low-level radioactive waste disposal sites
    WANG Yaxiao, LI Zhuoran, WANG Bingheng, WANG Xiaoxia, GAO Guiling
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (S1): 99-105.  
    Abstract58)      PDF(pc) (4886KB)(59)       Save
    The radiation protection design of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites generally involves waste disposal cells and waste receiving plant. The radiation shielding structure of waste disposal cell correlates highly with the acceptance criteria of the disposal site and the waste stacking and disposal plan. There are waste loading places, waste unpacking places and nondestructive examination places in the waste reception plant. This paper mainly introduces the formulation of radiation zoning criteria for low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, the consideration of radiation protection design principles, and the radiation protection design of waste disposal cells and waste receiving plants. The waste stratification and separation strategy in waste disposal cells, the limit of the surface dose rate of radioactive waste and limit layers allowed in different separation and stacking methods were studied. The direct irradiation of the side walls of the disposal unit and the sky scattering of the disposal unit, as well as radiation protection design considerations for cement mortar and capping were considered. Key issues about radiation protection design in the unpacking area of the waste receiving plant were studied, too. The problems and experience related to the radiation protection design of low-level radioactive waste near-surface disposal sites are introduced, which provides a reference for the radiation protection design of related facilities.
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    Study on the residual radioactivity level in the open site of soil for exploitation and utilization of associated radioactive ore
    ZHENG Guofeng, XIE Shujun, LIAO Yunxuan, ZHANG Ailing, SHANG Zhaorong, GAO Siyi
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2024, 44 (2): 151-159.  
    Abstract58)      PDF(pc) (1116KB)(65)       Save
    During the exploitation and utilization of associated radioactive ore, the associated natural radionuclides may migrate to soil and cause soil pollution. This paper analyzes soil pollution risk control regulations in China and internationally. By using RESRAD software program, the screening value of residual soil radioactivity at the open site of associated radioactive ore utilization according to different land use purposes were calculated and deduced. The calculated screening values were compared with those recommended by the U.S. regulatory agency. Therefore, the screening values of soil residual radioactivity of 6 typical radionuclides were determined, which can help improve our country’s soil radioactive pollution risk control regulations.
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    Construction and maintenance of urban radioactive waste repository and analysis of radiation environment monitoring in Yunnan
    LUO Jing, YU Yilin
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (S1): 111-122.  
    Abstract57)      PDF(pc) (4152KB)(29)       Save
    Yunnan radioactive waste repository is one of the first batch of urban radioactive waste repositories constructed by the central government. Over the past 34 years of operation, it has collected and stored a total of 3 650 radioactive sources and 12.2 tons of radioactive waste; The security construction of the warehouse area has been continuously upgraded to meet the nuclear safety guidelines “Requirements for the Safety Prevention System of Urban Radioactive Waste Storage”; The radiation environment quality in the warehouse area is good, and all radioactive monitoring indicators of environmental air, water, soil, and ecological environment belong to the regional environmental background level; The promotion activity of nuclear safety culture is rich and diverse, and the emergency prevention of radiation accidents is constantly prepared to continue to ensure the ecological and environmental safety of the province.
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    Retention calculation and comparison between new and old model based on the ICRP new iodine biokinetic model
    DAI Wei, WANG Ming, DONG Lang, ZHANG Qingxian, GU Yi, ZENG Guoqiang, LI Sangang
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2024, 44 (2): 110-119.  
    Abstract57)      PDF(pc) (12261KB)(39)       Save
    One new detailed biokinetic model for systemic iodine has been published in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication No. 137, which will lead to the calculation results of retention and excretion based on the new model that differs from the old iodine model. This paper aims to quantitatively analyze the difference in the calculation results of the old and new iodine system models, to provide a reference for the accurate assessment of radioactive iodine-induced internal exposure in China. In this paper, the matrix algorithm was used to build a calculation model of radioactive iodine based on ICRP publications, and the retention of radioactive iodine (including I-125, I-129, I-131) in thyroid and daily urine after intake through different ways (inhalation, ingestion and intravenous injection) was systematically analyzed. In addition, considering that the new model divides the liver and kidney parts that were not in the old model, the retention of radioactive iodine in these organs is also calculated and analyzed in this paper. The results showed that there were significant differences in the calculation results of radioactive iodine in the thyroid gland and daily urination calculated by the old and new models. But compared with ingestion and injection, the inhalation method could cause the largest difference in the calculation results.In the new model, the calculation results of retention in liver and kidney were different, but the variation tendency was similar.
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    Application of UAV aerial survey using LaBr3 in radioactive detection of port freight yard
    WAN Yongliang, TIE Lieke·bolaxiake, LI Zhun, CHENG Zhiwei, KAI Yisaier·abuduwaili
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (5): 490-494.  
    Abstract56)      PDF(pc) (1067KB)(25)       Save
    This paper introduces in detail the composition of UAV radioactive aerial survey system equipped with LaBr3 detector. The radiation energy is calibrated and the energy resolution and background are tested with the UAV system. The Monte Carlo method is applied to calculate the detection efficiency and conversion coefficient of measuring point source and soil bulk source. The minimum detectable activity (MDA) of the system for point source and volume source at 1 500 s measurement time is calculated. The result shows that the energy resolution of 137Cs 661.7 keV is 2.75%. MDA of 137Cs point source and bulk source is 2.4 kBq and 3.8 Bq/kg, respectively, at 1 500 s measurement time. The field application shows that, this system can be flexibly applied to radioactive detection in port freight yard.
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    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (5): 0-0.  
    Abstract55)      PDF(pc) (194KB)(52)       Save
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    International status of the development of transportable small modular nuclear reactors and transportation safety
    SUN Hongchao, LI Guoqiang, WANG Pengyi, MENG Dongyuan, WANG Changwu, WANG Zhipeng, ZHUANG Dajie, SUN Shutang, ZHANG Jiangang
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2024, 44 (3): 210-216.  
    Abstract55)      PDF(pc) (3021KB)(55)       Save
    The transportable nuclear power reactors (TNPPs), as a kind of small modular reactors (SMR, generally below 30 MW), can produce electricity for remote and small local communities. TNPPs can be transported by land or other means of transportation, and can operate on the transport vehicle or after unload from the transport vehicle. Thanks to meeting diverse energy needs, TNPPs have been attracting the attention of all countries. In this paper, the development status of TNPPs was introduced, and the features of different types of TNPPs, the problems and challenges to TNPPs development were summarized. The problems arising in the transport safety of TNPPs and countermeasures were mainly discussed.
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    Status and enlightenment of eye lens dose monitoring for radioactive workers in foreign nuclear facilities
    XUE Xiangming, WU Xiaoyan, YANG Xue, Gu Xiaona, ZHAN Jingming
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2024, 44 (3): 217-223.  
    Abstract55)      PDF(pc) (1089KB)(67)       Save
    International community has revised the eye lens dose limit for more than 10 years, during which several countries have integrated the new eye lens dose limit into their national law. Data from abroad show that the eye lens dose of some job in nuclear facilities may be high. Some countries have put forward specific monitoring programs, but relevant domestic information is lacking. On the basis of sorting out the dose levels of eye lens among occupational populations in foreign nuclear facilities, this article reviews the monitoring objects, requirements for monitoring dose levels, and monitoring methods proposed by foreign institutions, in order to provide reference for the revision of eye lens dose limits and related work in China’s nuclear facilities.
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    Study on the diamond dose measurement device for X-rays generated from ultrashort and ultra-intense laser facility
    SONG Honghu, WU Zhen, QIU Rui, WEI Shuoyang, GONG Hui, ZHANG Hui, LI Junli
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (6): 542-548.  
    Abstract54)      PDF(pc) (5323KB)(39)       Save
    An active dose measurement device based on a diamond detector was developed by our research group, and its performance was further studied. Monte Carlo software FLUKA was used to model the device. Energy and angular response simulations were performed based on the model. The device was calibrated in China National Institute of Metrology. Energy response and dose rate response calibration of the device was conducted by using 137Cs and 60Co. 137Cs is used for the angular response calibration of the device. The results showed that the output current of the device was linear with the dose rate, and no obvious saturation phenomenon was observed. The device has a good angular response to 137Cs, with the maximum variation less than 18%. Related verification experiments were carried out based on 3 MV and 6 MV electron pulse accelerator and “XG-III” laser facility. The results given by the device were consistent with Unidos dosimeter and TLD detectors, with maximum deviation less than 7% and 35%, respectively. Based on the above simulation and experiments, the feasibility of applying this device to real-time dose measurement of pulsed radiation field induced by ultra-short and ultra-intense laser facility is further verified, which provides an alternative for dosimetric method of such pulsed radiation field.
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    A new generation of human radiation dose calculation technology based on deformable mesh-type phantom
    ZHAO Ri, LIU Zhaoxing, LIU Na, WANG Xianxiang, ZHANG Jing, LIANG Runcheng, LIU Xin, LINGHU Renjing, DAI Yuling
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (6): 533-541.  
    Abstract54)      PDF(pc) (9536KB)(42)       Save
    In order to improve the accuracy of dose calculation and meet the requirement of precise radiation protection, a complete method of dose calculation based on deformable mesh-type phantom was established, including the deformation algorithm of human mesh-type phantom and the high-speed Monte Carlo calculation method of this phantom. Algorithms of rigid rotation matrix, Laplacian volume map and As-rigid-as-possible transformance were used to deform the bone, soft tissue and internal organs respectively. The high speed Monte Carlo calculation of the phantom is based on Delaunay tetrahedralization technology. Based on this, a comparative test of dose calculation between the deformable mesh-type phantom and the non-deformable voxel phantom was carried out. The results show that, for squatting posture and bottom-up irradiating condition, the effective dose obtained by the mesh-type phantom is 51.2% higher and the organ dose is up to 98.6% higher than that obtained by the voxel phantom; for kneeling posture and antero-posterior irradiating condition, the effective dose obtained by the mesh-type phantom is 58.7% higher and the organ dose is up to 98.0% higher than that obtained by the voxel phantom. This paper focuses on breaking through the key techniques of the new generation of dose calculation technology, including the mesh-type phantom deforming algorithm and high speed Monte Carlo simulation method, which provides important support for the further development of high-precision dose calculation in China. In the future, it is expected to achieve accurate evaluation of personnel dose in precise radiation protection applications.
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    Research on shipment approval of radioactive materials
    BAO Jie, ZHAN Lechang, ZHANG Linan, WANG Yue
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2023, 43 (S1): 89-94.  
    Abstract54)      PDF(pc) (1647KB)(25)       Save
    This paper investigated the basic situation of radioactive material shipment approval, mainly Including the scope of approved shipment of radioactive material and the main content of approval, made by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United States, Great Britain, France, Germany and China’s shipment approval agencies. This paper also summarized and compared the similarities and differences of the scope of approval and the content of approval, combined with the actual situation of domestic radioactive material shipment regulation. Suggestions on the management of radioactive material shipment are given.
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    Comparison and analysis of electromagnetic radiation monitoring instruments in anechoic chamber
    NING Jian, LI Zhanyou, ZHOU Feng, YUAN Xiuhua
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2024, 44 (1): 57-61.  
    Abstract54)      PDF(pc) (4011KB)(25)       Save
    In order to improve the comparability of the comparison results of monitoring instruments, it is necessary to select a place where the field strength is stable and is not affected by the external electromagnetic environment for comparison. This article analyzes and summarizes the experience and practices of conducting frequency-selective radio frequency electromagnetic radiation monitoring instrument comparison-measurement in a standard anechoic chamber, and finds out some problems that are difficult to detect in daily work.This paper also proposes suggestions for monitoring instrument verification during the monitoring period.Conducting comparisons in a stable and standard electromagnetic field environment could provide a new practice for electromagnetic environment monitoring instrument comparison.
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    Study on the dominant ventilation method for radon reduction in uranium mine
    LI Xianjie, ZHANG Zhe, HU Penghua, CHENG Gang, REN Jianjun, LIU Xiaochen
    RADIATION PROTECTION    2024, 44 (1): 80-84.  
    Abstract54)      PDF(pc) (910KB)(24)       Save
    Based on the radon exudation rule in the inlet and the using sections of the mine ventilation network, the calculation formula of air demand for radon reduction in uranium mines under different ventilation modes is derived from the basic equation of radon reduction ventilation in uranium mines. The evaluation indicators of dominant ventilation mode are derived from the effective air supply capacity of the inlet section. And the discrimination method of radon reduction ventilation mode in uranium mines is suggested.
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