Table of Content

    20 September 2023 Volume 43 Issue 5
    Expert consensus on clinical diagnosis and treatment techniques for local radiation injuries caused by external Iridium-192 source irradiation
    RADIATION PROTECTION. 2023, 43(5):  393-411. 
    Abstract ( 42 )   PDF (1345KB) ( 27 )  
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    Focusing on the international frontier of advanced radiation diagnosis and treatment research, and combining the practical experience of more than 30 years of basic research and clinical treatment of radiation injuries in China and especially in the General Hospital of Nuclear Industry, we established a precise assessment technology system for local radiation injuries caused by external Iridium-192 source irradiation from multiple dimensions. The treatment strategy and optimal treatment and efficacy evaluation plan for local radiation injuries were established and validated in the whole process of treatment of local radiation injuries. In this way, the precise assessment, standardized treatment, prognosis, rehabilitation management and long-term medical follow-up of nuclear and radiation injuries can be realized. The cure rate of local radiation injuries can be improved, and the disability rate can be reduced. Theoretical guidance and technical support can be provided for the treatment of local radiation injuries.
    Research progress of testing methods for X-ray shielding performance of low-lead/lead-free materials
    ZHANG Xuan, LI Dehong, ZHANG Xiaole, HAO Guanghui, CAO Lei, ZHANG Jian, HUANG Jianwei, GUO Bin, ZHAO Rui, LI Mengfei
    RADIATION PROTECTION. 2023, 43(5):  412-421. 
    Abstract ( 32 )   PDF (4444KB) ( 18 )  
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    To scientifically and rationally evaluate the protective effect of low-lead/lead-free materials, the shielding performance of such materials needs to be accurately tested. Through literature research, combined with the current relevant standards, this paper introduces shielding performance testing of protective materials from three aspects of X-ray radiation quality, testing equipment and testing methods. According to the different test geometry, there are five detection methods as follows: under the condition of narrow beam, the detector is far away from the material to be tested, so it can not detect the secondary radiation generated by the material to be tested, so it is not suitable for the detection of low-lead/lead-free materials. Under the condition of broad beam, the solid angle of the radiation beam increases and the detector is close to the tested material, which is conducive to the detection of low-lead/lead-free materials, but there are certain requirements for the area of the tested material and the selection of the detector. The inverse broad beam condition is detected by narrow beam and flat ionization chamber, but there is a small field problem. The improved inverse broad beam condition uses IB-AT and IB-AP configurations to reduce the difference of energy spectrum, but the implementation is cumbersome. The improved broad beam can reduce the influence of the small field problem, but there is still the influence of the energy spectrum difference on the results. In practice, the appropriate test method can be selected according to conditions and specific protection needs.
    Study on the status of I-129 monitoring technology for gaseous effluent in reprocessing plant
    LIN Yibo, LUO Zhiping, PANG Hongchao, WANG Chuangao, CHEN Ran
    RADIATION PROTECTION. 2023, 43(5):  422-430. 
    Abstract ( 30 )   PDF (1832KB) ( 33 )  
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    A large amount of radioactive gas is generated during the reprocessing process in spent fuel reprocessing plants. The main forms of I-129 in the gaseous effluent of the reprocessing plants were investigated, and the current monitoring methods for radioactive iodine were summarized. By comparing their advantages and disadvantages, the online monitoring methods suitable for I-129 in the gaseous effluent of reprocessing plants were analyzed. And it is feasible to establish online monitoring technology for I-129 in the gaseous effluent in reprocessing plants. An ICP-MS based online monitoring technology for I-129 in the gaseous effluent in reprocessing plants could be established for experiemnt purpose, with the aim to monitoring the gaseous iodine molecules in the gaseous effluent in reprocessing plants, thereby achieving real-time monitoring of I-129 in the gaseous effluent in reprocessing plants.
    An investigation of the authorized release limits of radioactive effluent from nuclear power plant
    HUANG Yanjun, SHANGGUAN Zhihong, ZUO Weiwei
    RADIATION PROTECTION. 2023, 43(5):  431-437. 
    Abstract ( 25 )   PDF (3557KB) ( 17 )  
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    Emission control plays a key role in environmental radiation protection and effluent management for the operator of nuclear power plants (NPPs) and the authorities. In this paper, the effluent emission levels of pressurized water reactor (PWR) NPPs at home and abroad, the contain rate of the emission control value stipulated in GB 6249—2011 were investigated for the reported release amount, and the regulated values were compared with that in France. It was shown that, except for 3H and 14C in the effluent, the existing regulatedemission limits could basically contain the statistical emissions of foreign nuclear power plants with a much large controllable margin. Under the current effluent emission management level, a suitable, and much controllable margin could be used for optimization for the limits except for 3H and 14C.
    An ignored radiation exposure source term in nuclear power plants
    GU Jingzhi
    RADIATION PROTECTION. 2023, 43(5):  438-442. 
    Abstract ( 38 )   PDF (967KB) ( 26 )  
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    Noble gas is a kind of radioactive material produced in nuclear fission processes of a nuclear power unit. Nevertheless such radiation source term and its exposure risk to workers of nuclear power plants during specific conditions has been neglected, due to its physical form and charachteristics as well as the difficulties of exposure dose measurement technology. This paper calls for attention to the professional radiation staffs of nuclear power plants to make further efforts to identify those specific radiation risks existed inside the nuclear power plant and then to control and reduce the source terms and their exposure risks.
    Simulation of charge collection and energy deposition characteristics in physical structure design of SOI-Si microdosimeter
    YAN Xuewen, JIN Haijing, LI Hua, LI Deyuan, QIAO Pei, NIU Mengqing
    RADIATION PROTECTION. 2023, 43(5):  443-450. 
    Abstract ( 20 )   PDF (8999KB) ( 9 )  
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    The charge collection characteristics and energy deposition characteristics of SOI-Si microdosimeter were studied by using TCAD and Monte Carlo method. The variation of electric field distribution with the shape and size of detection unit, electrode injection depth, incident particle type and energy was analyzed. And the variation of the micro dose spectrum with the shape and size of the detection unit and the thickness of the PMMA conversion layer was also analyzed. The simulation results showed that in the range of 10 μm, the cylindrical or cubic structure of the silicon detection unit had little influence on the charge collection efficiency and energy deposition. The higher the detection unit height and the smaller the radius, the higher the charge collection efficiency. The thickness of PMMA conversion layer had a certain influence on the microdose spectrum. With the increase of PMMA thickness, the proportion of secondary particles generated by neutron and γ-ray that were stopped in the silicon sensitive region will increase, which leads to the increase of the peak value of the microdose spectrum.
    Monitoring and research of long pulse radiation in EAST fusion device
    LI Chengxun, HUO Zhipeng, ZHONG Guoqiang, HU Liqun
    RADIATION PROTECTION. 2023, 43(5):  451-459. 
    Abstract ( 30 )   PDF (4608KB) ( 13 )  
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    EAST(Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) conducts plasma fusion by deuterium and deuterium, which releases large amounts of neutrons and secondary gamma rays. In order to accurately understand the spatial distribution of radiation products in the EAST fusion device under the condition of high parameter long pulse plasma discharge, the radiation on-line monitoring system is used to realize the effective monitoring of neutron and γ rays. According to protection requirements, 13 key monitoring areas are arranged inside and outside the EAST installation hall. In terms of monitoring system hardware, radiation neutrons and γ rays are detected by ionization chamber based on BF3 proportional counter tube and argon respectively, and monitoring data are transmitted to acquisition machine through twisted pair and Ethernet hybrid networking mode. The monitoring system software adopts the control acquisition software based on LabVIEW to collect and store the real-time dose rate and cumulative dose of neutron and gamma rays. The monitoring results show that the maximum radiation dose rate in the hall of the EAST fusion device rapidly increases by more than 3 orders of magnitude under the long pulse and high parameter plasma operation condition, and then drops to the radiation background level soon after the discharge. The radiation dose rate outside the hall is always kept close to the radiation background level due to the protective effect of the shielding wall. The online radiation monitoring system can not only effectively obtain radioactive data, but also provide data support for radiation safety protection management to ensure the safe development and utilization of fusion energy and personnel safety.
    Study on calculation method of dose rate conversion coefficients for water immersion γ external exposure
    GONG Junjun, HUANG Gu, XIA Wenming, CHEN Junjun, ZHANG Yaoyun
    RADIATION PROTECTION. 2023, 43(5):  460-466. 
    Abstract ( 22 )   PDF (2161KB) ( 10 )  
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    The point source spherical shell model was established by Monte Carlo software, and the effective distances of 30 mono-energy gamma rays with energies in the range of 10 keV-10 MeV in water were quickly calculated. Using three methods of Monte Carlo method F6 card, F4 card combined with FM4 card, *F8 card, the radioactivity concentration-dose rate conversion coefficients of mono-energy gamma-rays and 19 kinds of nuclides for reference person water immersion were calculated. The calculation results show that the relative deviations are within ±10% compared with the FGR 12 report and FGR 15 report of the US Energy Agency using the MIRD model and the ICRP No. 144 using the voxel model. The calculation method can provide a reference for rapid engineering calculation.
    Development of directional dose equivalent rate meter for emergency radiation protection
    WEI Yingjing, WU Zhifang, LIU Liye, LI Yin, WEI Shiliang, YAN Jun
    RADIATION PROTECTION. 2023, 43(5):  467-472. 
    Abstract ( 22 )   PDF (3843KB) ( 14 )  
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    In order to accurately measure the H'·(0.07) under emergency conditions, a directional dose equivalent rate meter for emergency radiation protection is developed. The detector conta: 2 layers 3 μm alumini polyester film, a diameter of 35 mm Plastic scintillators with thickness of 50 μm, plexiglass with a thickness of 5 mm, and SiPM. They were used as the front window, scintillator, photoconductive and photoelectric converter of the detector in turn. According to GB/T 4835.2—2013, the radiation characteristics of the developed directional dose equivalent rate meter for emergency radiation protection are as follows: the relative intrinsic error is -14% to +20% in the dose rate range of 70 μSv/h-1.7 Sv/h; With the incident angle from 0 to ±60°, and the β ray average energy of 60 keV-800 keV, the variation of radiation energy and incident angle is in the range of -16% to +48%; in the radiation field of 0.23 mSv/h, the statistical fluctuation of the measurement results is 8.4%. The test results show that the radiation characteristics of the directional dose equivalent rate meter for emergency radiation protection meet the requirements of GB/T 4835.2—2013, and can be used for directional dose equivalent rate monitoring in places with high weak penetrating radiation and emergency conditions.
    The weakly penetrating radiation dose measurement of surface of uranium fuel element surface and operator
    CHEN Bin, WEI Yingjing, AN Shifeng, WANG Yuqing
    RADIATION PROTECTION. 2023, 43(5):  473-477. 
    Abstract ( 20 )   PDF (1273KB) ( 17 )  
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    Along with β radiation of 238U and 235U dacay in uranium fuel. Existing, weakly penetrating radiation risk ofto operator of uranium fuel element exists. TIn this article,measuring the β spectrum was measured with β spectrometer and measuring the β dose rate was measured with directional dose equivalent meter,T, while the maximum energy of beta ray emitted from uranium fuel element is 2.3 MeV. The measurement results show that the $\dot{H}$'(0.07) is 1.38 mSv/h, and the $\dot{H}$'(0.07)/$\dot{H}$*(10) is 36. The experimental results show that the protective clothing worn by the uranium fuel element operators has almost no protective effect on high-energy β rays, and the Hp(0.07)/Hp(10) is 130. AccordingBased on the measurement results of uranium fuel element and operator, it is suggested monitoring Hp(0.07) and Hp(3) for the operator of uranium fuel element. At the same time,, the weakly penetrating radiation protectiveon methods were provided.
    Investigation and analysis of natural radionuclides content in coal used for power generation in China
    WANG Shaolin, CHEN Ling, BAI Xiangfei, TUO Fei, CHEN Faguo, CAO Zhonggang
    RADIATION PROTECTION. 2023, 43(5):  478-484. 
    Abstract ( 25 )   PDF (1041KB) ( 8 )  
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    Based on the analysis of the data obtained from coal mines and related literature, it is found that in 2013, the natural radionuclide content of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 210Po, and 210Pb for coal samples is 29.2±2.9 Bq/kg, 25.2±2.1 Bq/kg, 26.9±0.1 Bq/kg, 64.0±0.6 Bq/kg, 20.7±0.2 Bq/kg and 24.6±0.3 Bq/kg respectively based on weighted average of annual production; while the natural radionuclides content for coal samples is 33.9±9.7 Bq/kg, 30.9±7.9 Bq/kg, 28.5±4.2 Bq/kg, 79.7±20.4 Bq/kg, 26.8±4.3 Bq/kg and 33.9±7.7 Bq/kg respectively based on the weighted average of coal mine scale. The results of this survey can provide basic data for a comprehensive evaluation of the radioactive impact of Chinese coal power industry chain on the natural radioactive level of coal power generation.
    Inter-comparison results of 137Cs and 90Sr in seawater among analytical laboratories
    LIN Jing, HUANG Dekun, NI Jialin, JI Jianda, ZHONG Qiangqiang, ZHANG Jinzhao, YU Tao
    RADIATION PROTECTION. 2023, 43(5):  485-489. 
    Abstract ( 27 )   PDF (1803KB) ( 11 )  
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    Inter-comparison results among analytical laboratories for the measurements of 137Cs and 90Sr in seawater in 2020 is described in this paper. The spiked seawater samples were distributed to 13 participating laboratories, and their analytical results were compared to the reference values. The relative deviation of 137Cs between measured values and reference value was -2.99% to 5.97%. The results had passed all criteria and were assigned “Accepted” status as a final score. In the case of 90Sr, one measured result did not pass the accuracy test and correctness test, so it was considered as “Not Accepted”. All other results were accepted. The analytical laboratories participating in this inter-comparison have good overall comparison results.
    Application of UAV aerial survey using LaBr3 in radioactive detection of port freight yard
    WAN Yongliang, TIE Lieke·bolaxiake, LI Zhun, CHENG Zhiwei, KAI Yisaier·abuduwaili
    RADIATION PROTECTION. 2023, 43(5):  490-494. 
    Abstract ( 22 )   PDF (1067KB) ( 5 )  
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    This paper introduces in detail the composition of UAV radioactive aerial survey system equipped with LaBr3 detector. The radiation energy is calibrated and the energy resolution and background are tested with the UAV system. The Monte Carlo method is applied to calculate the detection efficiency and conversion coefficient of measuring point source and soil bulk source. The minimum detectable activity (MDA) of the system for point source and volume source at 1 500 s measurement time is calculated. The result shows that the energy resolution of 137Cs 661.7 keV is 2.75%. MDA of 137Cs point source and bulk source is 2.4 kBq and 3.8 Bq/kg, respectively, at 1 500 s measurement time. The field application shows that, this system can be flexibly applied to radioactive detection in port freight yard.
    A study of 7Be, 210Pb and 210Po in the atmosphere of Tianjin and the committed effective dose from 2018 to 2020
    CUI Ming, YU Chuan, GAO Jianzheng
    RADIATION PROTECTION. 2023, 43(5):  495-500. 
    Abstract ( 26 )   PDF (1156KB) ( 9 )  
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    In order to study the activity concentration and to estimate the committed effective dose through inhalation of 7Be, 210Pb and 210Po in the atmospheric aerosols of Tianjin, TSP samples from 2018 to 2020 were analyzed. Activity concentrations of 7Be,210Pb and 210Po in TSP were in the range of 0.74-15.0 mBq/m3, 0.21-2.5 μBq/m3 and 0.17-0.74 μBq/m3, respectively. The activity concentrations of three radionuclides were at highest in winter. This is the combined effect of the airflow from high latitudes and the increased pollution emission in winter season in Tianjin. The total committed effective dose caused by 7Be, 210Pb and 210Po was in the range of 6.28-40.1 μSv/a, which was far lower than the dose limits for public exposure and not enough to threaten human health.
    Investigation on KAP of radiation protection among medical staff in nuclear medicine department and analysis of influencing factors
    WANG Mengting, YANG Suyun, SHI Bingzi
    RADIATION PROTECTION. 2023, 43(5):  501-509. 
    Abstract ( 31 )   PDF (1082KB) ( 11 )  
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    Objective: To investigate knowledge, attitude and practice of radiation protection among medical staff in nuclear medicine department and to analyze the influencing factors, so as to provide the basis for standardizing the radiation protcetion behavior of medical staff and enriching the training content of radiation protection. Methods: A self-designed questionnaire on KAP of radiation protection was used to investigate the medical staff in nuclear medicine department, and multiple linear regression was used to analyze the factors affecting KAP of radiation protection. Results: A total of 123 valid questionnaires were collected, and the effective recovery rate was 94.62%. The total score of the radiation protection KAP questionnaire for medical staff in nuclear medicine department is 76.92; the knowledge score is 57.69; the attitude score is 95.24; and the behavior score is 83.33. The results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that if medical staff had children and whether they regularly attended radiation protection training were the influencing factors of radiation protection KAP score (P<0.05). Conclusions: Medical staff in nuclear medicine department have a good level of KAP about radiation protection, and their attitude and behavior are positive, but their knowledge of radiation protection is insufficient. Relevant organizations and agencies should regularly organize radiation protection training and education, in order to improve medical staff's knowledge level of radiation protection, and form positive attitudes and behaviors.
    Airborne radioactive concentration calculation and monitoring threshold value analysis of HPR1000 nuclear island building
    ZHANG Puzhong, LI Pengfei, FENG Jia, GUO Feng, CHEN Tingting
    RADIATION PROTECTION. 2023, 43(5):  510-514. 
    Abstract ( 26 )   PDF (1003KB) ( 17 )  
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    Internal exposure through inhalation is one of the main sources of occupational exposures of NPP staff. In order to ensure that personnel exposure meet the requirements of regulations and standards, and be as low as reasonably achievable, airborne radioactive concentration in nuclear island building should be effectively evaluated, monitored and controlled. Based on the calculation model that is widely used to evaluate the airborne radioactive concentration in nuclear island building of NPP in normal operation, the selection process of key parameters in this calculation model is analyzed and the monitoring threshold value of airborne radioactive concentration is calculated in this paper. Suggestions on the selection of key parameters and monitoring threshold value of some airborne radioactive nuclides are finally provided for designing the threshold value of start & stop of the key ventilation system, which is helpful to accurately evaluate, monitor and control the airborne radioactive concentration in nuclear island building of HPR1000, so as to reduce the personnel exposures of NPP staff.
    Simulation of water flow characteristics of radioactive waste disposal facilities in a long time scale
    LIU Xingwei, WANG Xuhong, LV Tao, LI Xingyu, XIA Jiaguo
    RADIATION PROTECTION. 2023, 43(5):  515-524. 
    Abstract ( 24 )   PDF (31956KB) ( 29 )  
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    In order to describe in detail the characteristics of water flow in a long time series after the closure of radioactive waste disposal facilities and to optimize the design of disposal vault. The simulation of the closed radioactive waste disposal facilities is carried out by Porflow. The results show that with the gradual degradation of the cover system and disposal components, there are local water flow rising areas at the bottom and both sides of the disposal vault in the 150-170 years after the closure of the disposal facilities. In the years of 0-150, the cover system infiltration water flows away from both sides of the disposal vault, and the maximum velocity is 0.41 cm/a; After the 150th year, the disposal vault area gradually became the dominant channel, and the maximum velocity was 86.4cm/a. The high velocity mainly occurred in the top corner of the disposal vault and the groundwater collecting pipe gallery area; The overall saturation changes little, the saturation in the disposal vault area remains at 0.99, the saturation on both sides and at the bottom of the disposal unit shows an upward trend, and the dynamic variation range is 0.3-0.5. The degradation of disposal components will not have a significant impact on the disposal facilities in a long time scale, and the catchment pipe gallery is a potentially advantageous channel for nuclide migration.
    Health Phys. Abstracts,Volume 125,Number 2
    RADIATION PROTECTION. 2023, 43(5):  525-528. 
    Abstract ( 19 )   PDF (620KB) ( 5 )  
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    Health Phys. Abstracts,Volume 125,Number 3
    RADIATION PROTECTION. 2023, 43(5):  529-532. 
    Abstract ( 17 )   PDF (606KB) ( 7 )  
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